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воскресенье, 28 февраля 2016 г.

The intensification of some feature of the concept is realized in a device called simile. Similes set one object against another regardless of the fact that they may be completely alien to each other. The simile gives rise to a new understanding of the object. The properties of an object maybe viewed from different angles, f. e. its state, its actions, manners Accordingly, similes may be based on adjective - attributes, adverb - modifiers, verb - predicates etc.Similes have formal elements in their structure: connective words such as like, as, such as, as if, seem. Similes can be found just about anywhere; from the printed word to oral conversation; in language, literature, and music. A simile is an analogy that compares two things that are alike in one way. To help you identify a simile, know that the words “like” or “as” are always used.
Well-known similes are:
“cute as a kitten,” comparing the way someone looks to the way a kitten looks
“as busy as a bee” comparing someone’s level of energy to a fast-flying bee
"as snug as a bug in a rug" comparing someone who is very cozy to how comfortable a bug can be in a rug
"as happy as a clam" comparing someone's happiness to the contentment of a clam
"Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you're going to get." comparing the uncertainty of life to the uncertainty of choosing a chocolate from a box
"as agile as a monkey" implying someone can move as well as a monkey does
"as black as coal" comparing the color of something dark to the very-dark coal color
"as blind as a bat" indicating that the person cannot see any better than a bat can
Similes Add Depth to Language
Similes can make our language more descriptive and enjoyable. Writers, poets, and songwriters make use of similes often to add depth and emphasize what they are trying to convey to the reader or listener. Similes can be funny, serious, mean, or creative.
Following are some examples of similes:
My love is like a red, red rose.
You were as brave as a lion.
They fought like cats and dogs.
He is as funny as a barrel of monkeys.
This house is as clean as a whistle.
He is as strong as an ox.
Your explanation is as clear as mud.
Watching the show was like watching grass grow.

Similes and Metaphors
When you are making comparisons, you may use similes or metaphors. They are both analogies that compare two things. Metaphors are a kind of analogy where two unlike things are compared but have something in common. The statement doesn’t make sense, until you think about it and see the comparison that is being made. A simile is a more direct comparison of two things and a metaphor is an indirect comparison. If you look at a metaphor literally, it doesn’t make sense. When you realize the comparison that being made, then it makes sense. Similes are a little easier to understand. Here are examples of similes and metaphors:
Simile: Your eyes are like sunshine. Metaphor: You are my sunshine.
Simile: He eats like a pig. Metaphor: He is a pig.
Simile: You are like a rock. Metaphor: You are a rock.
Simile: You are as happy as a clown. Metaphor: You are a clown.
Simile: He is as stubborn as a mule. Metaphor: He is a mule.
Simile: The world is like a stage. Metaphor: The world is a stage.
Simile: The noise is like music to my ears. Metaphor: The noise is music to my ears
The uses of similes and metaphors can be confusing to people who are not fluent in a given language because they will interpret the words literally. Also, similes and metaphors can change from region to region, and even among groups of people, like musicians or teenagers. Sharing certain analogies can be a common bond in a social group.
SIMILE vs. COMPARISON SIMILE COMPARISON• characterize some object • means weighing two objects bringing it into contact with belonging to one class of another object belonging to things an entirely different class of things• EXAMPLE: “Maidens, like • EXAMPLE: The boy seems to moths, are ever caught by be as clever as his mother. glare.” (Byron)
3. • Some similes can be considered as half metaphor if not for the connective words.Example: It was that moment of the year when the countryside seems to faint from its own loveliness, from the intoxication of its scents and sounds.” (J. Galsworthy)
4. • The semantic nature of the simile-forming elements seem and as if is such that they only remotely suggest resemblance. Quite different are the connectives like and as. These are more categorical and establish quite straightforwardly the analogy between the two objects in the question.
5. • Sometimes the simile-forming like is placed at the end of the phrase almost emerging with it and becoming half-suffix.Example: “Emily Barton was very pink, very Dresden-china-shepherdess like.”
6. • Similes may suggest analogies in the character of actions performed.Example: “The Liberals have plunged for entry without considering its effects, while the Labour Leaders like cautious bathers have put a timorous toe into the water and promptly withdrawn it.”
7. • In the English language, there is a long list of hackneyed similes pointing out the analogy.Examples: hungry as a bear, thirsty as a camel, to act like a puppy, playful as kitten, vain as a peacock, slow as tortoise, etc.
The stylistic device that is in charge of renaming of the kind is called periphrasis.Periphrasis is a stylistic device that consists in the renaming of an object by a phrase that brings out some particular feature of it. Rendering a purely individual perception of the object the device can be decipherable only in context. If a periphras­tic locution is understandable outside the context, it is not a stylistic device but merely a synonymous expression. Such easily decipherable periphrases are also called traditional, dictionary or language periphrases. e.g.      'My dear Tina, we have paid our homage to Neptune. He will forgive us if we now turn our backs on him.'Though this periphrasis is not strikingly genuine, it is still rather difficult to grasp the speaker's idea. One needs context to perceive that Charles Smithson. the main male character in The French Lieutenant's Woman by John Fowles. Suggests to his com­panion that they stop gazing at the sea and go back to town.Writers of past epochs employed periphrasis a great deal, seeing in it a more elegant manner of expression. No wonder, it was one of the most favourite devices of Victo­rian writers. The same can be attributed to all the educated people of the time, hypoc­risy being its distinguishing feature - the thing Oscar Wilde made the object of his ridicule in the play quoted above.
Periphrasis - is a round - about way of speaking used to name some object or phenomenon. Longer-phrase is used instead of a shorter one. Some periphrasis are traditional.
e. g. My better half.
Periphrasis are divided into:
1. Logical - based on inherent properties of a thing. e. g. Instrument of destruction, the object of administration.
2. Figurative - based on imagery: metaphor, metonymy e. g. To tie a knot - to get married; in disgrace of fortune - bad luck.
 Divisions of Stylistic Periphrase LOGICAL FIGURATIVE• Based on one inherent • Based either on metaphor properties or perhaps a or on metonymy, the passing feature of the keyword of the collocation object described being the word used figuratively• Example: “the object of his • Example: “the punctual admiration” (pertaining to servant of all work” “love”) (pertaining to “the sun”)
10. Other Types of Periphrasis• Amphilogism (also called amphilogy) is a form of circumlocutory speech used to avoid telling something that might otherwise harm you.Example: "She made dinner for me last night", an amphilogistic statement would be "Dinner was already made for me last night".
11. Other Types of Periphrasis• Cledonism is the use of circumlocution to avoid saying unlucky words.Example: Calling the devil "Old Nick", calling Macbeth the "Scottish Play" or saying "bakers dozen" instead of thirteen.
12. Other Types of Periphrasis• Equivocation is the use of circumlocution to deceive others without blatantly lying.• Euphemism is the use of circumlocution to avoid saying offensive words.Example: "Holy mother of Jesus!" is a circumlocution of "Mary!"
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.[1] Some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive, and often misleading terms for things the user wishes to dissimulate or downplay. Euphemisms are used for dissimulation, to refer to taboo topics (such as disability, excretion, and death) in a polite way, and to mask profanity. Over the centuries euphemisms have been introduced for "latrine", and themselves replaced as they came to be considered unacceptable; "toilet", once itself a euphemism, is often euphemised as "bathroom", "restroom", etc. Euphemisms are used to downplay and conceal unpalatable facts, as "collateral damage" for "civilian casualties" in a military context. A euphemism is a polite expression used in place of words or phrases that otherwise might be considered harsh or unpleasant to hear. Euphemisms are used regularly, and there are many examples in every day language.
Types of Euphemisms
To Soften an Expression/Some euphemisms are used in order to make a blunt or unpleasant truth seem less harsh.
Examples of euphemisms that fall into this category include:
Passed away instead of died
Correctional facility instead of jail
Departed instead of died
Differently-abled instead of handicapped or disabled
Fell off the back of a truck instead of stolen
Ethnic cleansing instead of genocide
Turn a trick instead of engage in prostitution
Negative patient outcome instead of dead
Relocation center instead of prison camp
Collateral damage instead of accidental deaths
Letting someone go instead of firing someone
On the streets instead of homeless
Other euphemisms are used to take the place of words or phrases you might not want to say in polite company.
Examples of euphemisms that fall into this category include:
Adult entertainment instead of pornography
Adult beverages instead of beer or liquor
Au natural instead of naked
Big-boned instead of heavy or overweight
Portly instead of heavy or overweight
Chronologically-challenged instead of late
Use the rest room instead of go to the bathroom
Economical with the truth instead of liar
Powder your nose instead of use the rest room
Between jobs instead of unemployed
Domestic engineer instead of maid
Sanitation engineer instead of garbage man
Vertically-challenged instead of short
Euphemisms to be Impolite
In some cases, euphemisms are intentionally a grosser or less pleasant way of saying something. These are usually used when people are being sarcastic or trying to make light of a serious subject or make it seem less serious.
Examples include:
Bit the big one instead of died
Bit the farm instead of died
Cement shoes instead of dead

Hyperbole is a lexical stylistic device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration, or an overstatement. Hyperbole is usually not intended to be taken literally.Hyperbole is one of the common expressive means of our everyday speech (e.g. “I have told it to you a thousand times” or “I could sleep for a year”). Due to long and repeated use hyperboles have lost their originality. Hyperbole can be expressed by all notional parts of speech.It is important that both communicants should clearly perceive that the exaggeration serves not to denote actual quality or quantity but signals the emotional background of the utterance. If this reciprocal understanding is absent, hyperbole turns into a mere lie. Hyperbole is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. When it is directed the opposite way, when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are not overrated, but intentionally underrated, we deal with understatement.
Hyperbole is deliberate overstatement or exaggeration, the aim of which is to intensify one of the features of the object in question to such a degree as to show its utter absurdity. Like many SDs, hyperbole may lose its quality as a SD through frequent repetition and become a unit of the language as a system, reproduced in speech in its unaltered from. Here there are some examples:
e. g. A thousand pardons, scared to death, immensely obliged.
Hyperbole is a device which sharpens the reader's ability to make a logical assessment of the utterance. This is achieved, as in case with other devices, by awakening the dichotomy of thought and feeling where thought takes the upper hand though not to the detriment of feeling.
Here are some examples of hyperbole in literature.
Flannery O’Connor was an essayist and author whose works often featured hyperbole. One of the most famous instances comes from Parker’s Back and reads, "And the skin on her face was thin and drawn tight like the skin on an onion and her eyes were gray and sharp like the points of two ice picks."
In his humorous and very popular books A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court the author Mark Twain (born Samuel Langhorne Clemens) once wrote, "People moved slowly then. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County."
Hyperboles Add Excitement and Fun
A boring story can come to life or become comical with the use of a hyperbole. Some examples of hyperboles include:
“I’ve told you a million times”
“It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing jackets”
“She is so dumb, she thinks Taco Bell is a Mexican phone company”
Here are some common examples of hyperboles:
I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
I have a million things to do.
I had to walk 15 miles to school in the snow, uphill.
I had a ton of homework.
If I can’t buy that new game, I will die.
He is as skinny as a toothpick.
This car goes faster than the speed of light.
That new car costs a bazillion dollars.
We are so poor; we don’t have two cents to rub together.
That joke is so old, the last time I heard it I was riding on a dinosaur.
They ran like greased lightning.
He's got tons of money.
If used properly, a hyperbole can encourage consumers to buy products.
Marketing research from Roger J. Kreuz, PhD for the Military Personnel Research Science Workshop in June 2001 in Memphis TN, has shown that 75% of ads use at least one figure of speech. Examples of hyperboles in advertising include:
“adds amazing luster for infinite, mirror-like shine” (Brilliant Brunette shampoo)
“It doesn't get better than this” (Oscar Meyer)
A great example of hyperbole in literature comes from Paul Bunyan’s opening remarks in the American folktale Babe, the Blue Ox:
“Well now, one winter it was so cold that all the geese flew backward and all the fish moved south and even the snow turned blue. Late at night, it got so frigid that all spoken words froze solid afore they could be heard. People had to wait until sunup to find out what folks were talking about the night before.”
Another example comes from "As I Walked Out One Evening" by W.H. Auden:
"I'll love you, dear, I'll love you till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,
I'll love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up to dry
And the seven stars go squawking
Like geese about the sky."
Following are some short hyperboles from literature:
The skin on her face was as thin and drawn as tight as the skin of onion and her eyes were gray and sharp like the points of two picks.
It was not a mere man he was holding, but a giant; or a block of granite. The pull was unendurable. The pain unendurable.
People moved slowly then. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County.
It's a slow burg. I spent a couple of weeks there one day.
Why does a boy who’s fast as a jet take all day and sometimes two to get to school?

Understatement is a phrase that minimizes the content of the message, using restrained or weak phrases. It is often used for rhetorical effects, and the tone is often ironic or sarcastic (e.g. one may say “it is a little warm outside”, when actually the temperature is well over 40 degrees Celsius). English is well known for its preference for understatement in everyday speech. “I am rather annoyed” instead of “I’m infuriated’, “The wind is rather strong” instead of “There’s a gale blowing outside” are typical of British polite speech, but are less characteristic of American English.
Understatement is a form of speech which contains an expression of less strength than what would be expected. This is not to be confused with euphemism, where a polite phrase is used in place of a harsher or more offensive expression.

litotes /ˈlaɪtətiːz/ is a figure of speech in which understatement is employed for rhetorical effect. For example, rather than saying that something is attractive (or even very attractive), one might merely say it is "not unattractive".
Litotes is a form of understatement, always deliberate and with the intention of emphasis.[5] However, the interpretation of negation may depend on context, including cultural context. In speech, it may also depend on intonation and emphasis; for example, the phrase "not bad" can be said in such a way as to mean anything from "mediocre" to "excellent".
The use of litotes is common in English, Russian, German and French. They are features of Old English poetry and of the Icelandic sagas.
Rarely heard, but extensively used - that is litotes among the regular speakers of English language. Popularly a figure of speech, the word 'litotes' originated from the Greek word 'litos' which means simple. Litotes is defined as 'an ironical understatement in which affirmative is expressed by the negation of the opposite'. In this figure of speech, the usages are intentional, ironical and provide emphasis to the words. This is mainly done through double negatives. To put it in simple terms, in litotes, instead of saying that something is attractive, you say that it is not unattractive. In literary circles, plenty of poets as well as writers have used this concept to convey strange and vivid images. It changes the thought process and thereby beautifies and adorns the literary works. Most of the literary works describe litotes in such a way that the words described are not false, but do not come near a complete description of the action in question. Rather, they are presented in a passive tone and demand more careful attention from the reader. Even figurative language use litotes to convey messages in a clear and impressive manner.
Examples Of Litotes
Regularly Used Examples Of litotes
Following are some of the commonly used litotes:
They aren't the happiest couple around.
He's not the ugliest fellow around!
She's not the brightest girl in the class.
The food is not bad.
It is no ordinary city.
That sword was not useless to the warrior now.
He was not unfamiliar with the works of Dickens.
She is not as young as she was.
You are not wrong.
Einstein is not a bad mathematician.
Heat waves are not rare in the summer.
It won't be easy to find crocodiles in the dark.
He is not unlike his dad.
That's no small accomplishment.
He is not the kindest person I've met.
That is no ordinary boy.
He is not unaware of what you said behind his back.
This is no minor matter.
The weather is not unpleasant at all.
She's no doll.
That was no small issue.
The city is not unclean.
Rap videos with dancers in them are not uncommon
Running a marathon in under two hours is no small accomplishment.
She's no idiot.
That's not a meager sum.
You're not doing badly.
That's no mean feat.
She's not a bad writer at all.
Examples Of Litotes In Poems
In the poem 'The Spider and the Fly' by Mary Howitt, "I'm really glad that you have come to visit," says the spider to the fly. The spider is not just glad to get a visitor, but also is excited to get his next meal.
In the poem 'To His Coy Mistress' by Andrew Marvell, 'The grave's a fine a private place, But none, I think, do there embrace.'
Poets like Johnson make use of litotes to make a modest assertion in lines like, 'This kind of writing may be termed not improperly the comedy of romance. . . .'
In the lines from the poem 'The Catcher in the Rye' by J.D. Salinger, 'It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain', you can see litotes.
In the following lines from the poem 'Fire and Ice' by Robert Frost, you can see litotes.
'Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if I had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.'

Litotes intensifies the emotion intended by the writer and moderately conveys the feelings as in these lines 'Hitting that telephone pole certainly didn't do your car any good.
Alexander Pope in his lines says , ' If you can tell the fair one's mind, it will be no small proof of your art, for I dare say it is more than she herself can do.
He who examines his own self will not long remain ignorant of his failings.
Overall the flavors of the mushrooms, herbs, and spices combine to make the dish not at all disagreeable to the palate.
Sir Joshua Reynolds says, 'A figure lean or corpulent, tall or short, though deviating from beauty, may still have a certain union of the various parts, which may contribute to make them on the whole not unpleasing'.
Examples Of Litotes In Prose
"Freedom now appeared, to disappear no more forever" Frederick Douglass gives an instance of Litotes in these lines as double negative play down the fact that freedom is being materialized.
Nathaniel Hawthorne in his novel 'The Scarlet Letter' says, 'Not improbably, it was to this latter class of men that Mr. Dimmesdale, by many of his traits of character, naturally belonged." These lines are examples of litotes as double negative stresses that Dimmesdale most likely belong to a group of men who are pious and moral.
In the lines, 'Indeed, it is not uncommon for slaves even to fall out and quarrel among themselves about the relative goodness of their masters, each contending for the superior goodness of his own over that of the others', Frederick Douglass uses litotes to stress that even slaves sought dominance among other slaves.
Usually, litotes occurs in a language when the speaker does not make an affirmation, rather denies the opposite. With regard to literature, the relationship between Litotes and English language is so old that its instances can be found even in the literary works of the Anglo Saxon period. Litotes usage appeals specifically to North Europeans and is well-liked among English, French and Russians. It makes the speech more effective by beautifying and emphasizing it in rhetoric. Though widely used in conversational language, its usage depends on intonation and emphasis as in the case of phrase "not bad". This can be said in such a way which means everything from 'mediocre' to 'excellent'.

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