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пятница, 14 июня 2013 г.

The Coronation of the Virgin Mary in Heaven (description of a picture)

 The Coronation of the Virgin Mary in Heaven   (by Abdullaeva U.)                                          
The Coronation of the Virgin or Coronation of Mary is a subject in Christian art,
especially popular in Italy in the 13th to 15th centuries, but continuing in
popularity until the 18th century and beyond. Christ, sometimes accompanied by
God the Father and the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, places a crown on the
head of Mary as Queen of Heaven. In early versions the setting is a Heaven
imagined as an earthly court, staffed by saints and angels; in later versions Heaven
is more often seen as in the sky, with the figures seated on clouds. The subject is
also notable as one where the whole Christian Trinity are often shown together,
sometimes in unusual ways. Although crowned Virgins may be seen in Eastern
Orthodox icons, the coronation by the deity is not. Mary is sometimes shown, in
both Eastern and Western Christian art, being crowned by one or two angels, but
this is considered a different subject.
The subject became common as part of a general increase in devotion to Mary in
the Early Gothic period, and is one of the commonest subjects in surviving 14th
century Italian panel paintings, mostly made to go on a side-altar in a church. The
great majority of Catholic churches had (and have) a side-altar or "Lady chapel"
dedicated to Mary. The subject is still often enacted in rituals or popular pageants
called May crownings, although the crowning is performed by human figures.
The belief in Mary as Queen of Heaven obtained the papal sanction of Pope Pius
XII in his encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam (English: Queenship of Mary in Heaven)
of October 11, 1954.It is also the fifth Glorious Mystery of the Rosary. The Roman
Catholic Church celebrates the feast every August 22, where it replaced the former
octave of the Assumption of Mary in 1969, a move made by Pope Paul VI. The
feast was formerly celebrated on May 31, at the end of the Marian month, where
the present general calendar now commemorates the Feast of the Visitation.                  
Crown of Mary
The "crown" of Mary has been mentioned since the 6th century, as "corona
virginum", (Crown of Virgins) [3] The crown has several meanings in secular
depictions. The ancient laurel crown in the Olympic Games signified victory, and a
crown in gold and precious stones indicate power and wealth. In Christian
iconography, the crown develops religious meanings. In an early mosaic in
Ravenna, Italy, virgins present a crown to the child and Mary as a gesture of
humility.[4] The Three kings present their crowns to the newly born Jesus as a
symbol of secular power submitting to Christ.[4] Marian crowns often include
elements of victory and glory, especially during the Baroque period.
A crowned Mary is usually seen in Jesse Trees, which stress her earthly royal
descent from the House of David, something accorded considerable importance in
the Middle Ages. In Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome, she is shown as the
mother and bride of Christ, who participates in his kingdom

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