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четверг, 19 мая 2016 г.



Planet Issues


Task 1. Think over the following questions and discuss them with your groupmates:
1)    Do you know anything about climate change and its impacts on our Earth?
2)    What can we do to solve environmental issues?

Task 2. Scan the following text to define different causes of global warming.

Scientists have spent decades figuring out what is causing global warming. They've looked at the natural cycles and events that are known to influence climate. But the amount and pattern of warming that's been measured can't be explained by these factors alone. The only way to explain the pattern is to include the effect of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted by humans.
To bring all this information together, the United Nations formed a group of scientists called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. The IPCC meets every few years to review the latest scientific findings and write a report summarizing all that is known about global warming. Each report represents a consensus, or agreement, among hundreds of leading scientists.
One of the first things scientists learned is that there are several greenhouse gases responsible for warming, and humans emit them in a variety of ways. Most come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, factories and electricity production. The gas responsible for the most warming is carbon dioxide, also called CO2. Other contributors include methane released from landfills and agriculture (especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals), nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes, and the loss of forests that would otherwise store CO2.
Different greenhouse gases have very different heat-trapping abilities. Some of them can even trap more heat than CO2. A molecule of methane produces more than 20 times the warming of a molecule of CO2. Nitrous oxide is 300 times more powerful than CO2. Other gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (which have been banned in much of the world because they also degrade the ozone layer), have heat-trapping potential thousands of times greater than CO2. But because their concentrations are much lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2 does.
In order to understand the effects of all the gases together, scientists tend to talk about all greenhouse gases in terms of the equivalent amount of CO2. Since 1990, yearly emissions have gone up by about 6 billion metric tons of "carbon dioxide equivalent" worldwide, more than a 20 percent increase.

Task 3. Paraphrase the quotations below. Do you agree? Why? Why not? Discuss.
"The only thing we have to fear on this planet is man." 
Carl Jung
"If you poison the environment, the environment will poison you!'
Tony Follari







Task 4. You are going to hear three people taking part in a survey about recycling. Mark the statements as Yes (/) or No (X) for each speaker. Which speaker do you agree with most?


     1
2
3
A) We recycle most of our household waste.



B) Recycling is too expensive and time consuming.



C) Governments should introduce laws about recycling.



D) Recycling is the most important way of saving the environment.




Task 5. Match the items in column A to those in column B. Which two phrases refer to solutions to environmental problems?
A
B
overuse of
climate
urban
global
genetically modified (GM)
toxic
solar/wind
recycling
foods
scheme
warming
waste
development
power
pesticides
change


Task 6. Rank the environmental issues in order of seriousness. In pairs, compare your lists and justify your opinions.

A: I believe that urban development is the issue we need to deal with first because cities are becoming overcrowded.
B: Do you think so? What worries me most is GM foods because they're very dangerous for our health.


READING I.

THE ANTARCTIC: KEY TO PLANET EARTH
The article was written by Marta Bashta


The first people to reach the South Pole - in mode times, anyway – were Roald Amundsen and the Norwegian Antarctic expedition, in December 1911. They beat the British by one month. Explorers had been trying to reach the Antarctic for over a hundred years because it represents: the ultimate challenge: the coldest and windiest continent in the world.
Nowadays, scientists from over 27 countries work in Antarctic all year round. 1____ The Antarctic still represent a challenge, but a challenge of a different sort. Since 1960s, people have come to realise that the Antarctic holds the key to the history of our planet: past, present and future.
Antarctica has preserved valuable evidence of the natural history of our planet. Evidence from fossils shows how life evolved during geological time. The Antarctic has a crucial role to play in helping us understand global change. Analysing sediment from its different lakes makes it possible to collect information on climate change over the last 10,000 years. 2____ The 4 km thick ice sheet is a frozen record of the last 500,000 years. Bubbles in the ice contain atmospheric gases. Frozen into the ice is evidence of levels of global pollution by industry, agriculture and atomic bombs.
The Antarctic provides valuable information about what is currently happening to the ozone layer and about global warming. Scientists are also discovering that the ice sheet may contribute to changes in sea level. What happens in Antarctica affects the world's climate and the world’s oceans. 3____ Governments can no longer afford to ignore this previously unprotected area.
Up until the 1960s, some species of whale and seal were driven almost to extinction by human activities in Antarctica. 4____ There is a special regulation to protect six species of seal which breed in the Antarctic.
Fishing in the Antarctic regions is also strictly controlled. The control is based on the ‘ecosystem approach’. 5____ Commercial fishing is strictly limited and severe measures aim to minimise illegal fishing. For instance, the Patagonian Toothfish, a delicacy in expensive restaurants, would probably have disappeared by now if it weren't for these restrictions.                  
At the moment, there is international concern over environmental impact of fishing in the seas of the Antarctic. 6____ Creatures die by getting entangled in nets or else by swallowing the hooks, which causes internal injuries. Even whales have been victims of this kind of carelessness. There are also strict measures to control marine pollution. It is illegal to dump into the sea any kind of toxic chemicals, oil, plastics, rubbish or age. It is also illegal to leave anything like this on land (or ice) in Antarctica, so all waste must be taken away on board ship and disposed of elsewhere.
Antarctica provides information on the past, resent and future of our planet, and controls major issues in the rest of the world, like sea level. In this sense, it is a warning because it tells us what we have done wrong as regards the ozone layer and global warming, for instance. 7____ It is up to us to listen and act, before it is too late.

Task 7. Read the newspaper article and choose the most suitable sentence from the list (A – H) for each gap (1 – 7) in the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A) This is why the Antarctic is now one of the most controlled regions of the world in terms of regulations concerning pollution and other environmental issues.
B)    These days, however, due to greater environmental awareness, all plants and animals in Antarctica are protected by regulation.
C)    Apart from that, it is a lesson because the regulations in force there show us what can and must be done for the environment.
D)   An example of this is what is called 'marine litter’ which includes hooks and nets left in the ocean and which can cause harm to fish, birds and seals.
E)    There is the added possibility that future studies of a lake covered by 3.7 km of ice might reveal bacteria over half a million years old.
F)     This is an approach which takes account of the whole of the food chain which means that it assesses the numbers of seals and seabirds as well as fish, squid and krill (a creature like a shrimp).
G)   These may include playing football, skiing for recreation and diving beneath the sea.
H)   As well as providing a base for scientific research, it even attracts a small amount of tourism during the summer months.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE
GLOSSARY
1.    genetically modified (GM) foods
2.    global warming
3.    toxic waste
4.    solar/wind power
5.    overuse of pesticides
6.    urban development
7.    solutions to environmental problems
8.    recycling scheme
9.    climate change
10.     fossils
11.     sea level
12.     environmental awareness
13.     commercial fishing
14.     the South Pole
15.     beat the British
16.     the ultimate challenge
17.     all year round
18.     hоld the key to
19.     evolve (to evolve one’s ideas out of, evolution, evolved, evolving)
20.     have a crucial role
21.     sediment
22.     the ozone layer
23.     contribute to (contribution)
24.     levels of global pollution by industry, agriculture and atomic bombs
25.     preserve
26.     be protected by regulation
27.     cause harm to fish, birds and seals
28.     take account of
29.     the food chain
30.     be driven to extinction by human activities
31.     breed in the Antarctic
32.     be for restrictions
33.     international concern over the environmental impact of
34.     strict measures to control marine pollution
35.     strictly limited
36.     environmental issues
37.     come to realize
38.     explore the Antarctic
39.     victims of carelessness
40.     minimize illegal fishing
41.     the ecosystem approach
42.     assess the numbers of seals and seabirds
43.     provide a base for scientific research

Task 8.
a.    Find words/phrases in the text.
to be one of the causes of, to consider, to have all the answers regarding, kind, to be ahead of, damage, to develop, to conserve, residue, to reproduce, a law, severe.

b. Give English equivalents for.
внести вклад, пищевая цепь, строго ограниченный, изменение климата, северный полюс, генно-модифицированные продукты, круглый год, играть решающую роль, озоновый слой, солнечная/ветровая энергия, уровень моря, глобальное потепление, промысловое рыболовство, злоупотребление пестицидами, учитывать, решения экологических проблем, токсичные отходы, план переработки, экосистемный подход, градостроительство, прийти к осознанию, исследовать Антарктику, сократить незаконную ловлю рыб, ископаемые, конечная задача, привести к вымиранию вида.

Task 9. Paraphrase the sentences using words and word combinations given in the Glossary.
1)   Air pollution with plant emissions is one of the causes of global warming. 2) Antarctica has all the answers regarding the natural history of our planet. 3) The Norwegian Antarctic expedition was ahead of the British by one month. 4) Sea litter includes hooks and nets left in the ocean and which can damage fish, birds and seals. 5) The government has taken severe measures to defend rare plant and animal species. 6) Blue whales reproduce in the Antarctic in July. 7) People have come to realize the existing environmental problems. 8) A worldwide temperature rise causes iceberg melting and greenhouse effect. 9) Nonbiodegradable waste cannot be reused. 10) Evidence from fossils shows how life developed during geological time.

Task 10. Match the words on the left to the words on the right. Then, choose five phrases to make sentences.

A
all year
come
global
crucial
ozone
ultimate
strictly
marine
major
sea
drive
severe
environmental
B
warming
limited
pollution
level
measures
challenge
role
issues
impact
layer
to extinction
round
to realise


Task 11. Translate the following sentences into English.
1)   Некоторые редкие виды животных могут исчезнуть, если не будут приняты жесткие меры по их защите. 2) Недобросовестные производители используют генно-модифицированные продукты в своих товарах, которые выращены путем генной инженерии. Такие продукты требуют, по ГОСТу РФ, обязательной маркировки. 3) Исследования Федерального ведомства Германии по защите окружающей среды выявили негативные влияния выращивания генно-модифицированных сельскохозяйственных культур на окружающую среду. 4) Каждый житель планеты, как разумное звено пищевой цепи, должен обладать знаниями об окружающей среде, осознавать и нести ответственность за свое влияние на эко- и биосистемы. 5) Группа школьников отправилась на экскурсию на завод по производству бумаги, где она лично познакомилась со всеми этапами ее переработки. Переработка макулатуры сохраняет нашу планету чистой и спасает леса от чрезмерной вырубки. 6) Глобальное потепление может привести к разрушению озонового слоя, появление озоновых дыр, образованию парникового эффекта, повышению уровня моря, таянию ледников, стихийным бедствиям и катаклизмам, а впоследствии, и к гибели самого человечества. 7) Необходим международный контроль над охраной морей, который сократил бы нелегальный улов и выбросы токсических отходов в море, наносящие непоправимый вред обитателям подводной экосистемы. 8) Учёные заключают, что самый большой вклад в смещении полюсов вносит таяние Гренландского ледяного щита, который теряет около 250 Гт льда в год. «Таяние льда и изменение уровня моря на 90% объясняют сдвиг в восточном направлении, – подчёркивает г-н Чэнь. – Движущая сила внезапной перемены – это изменение климата». 9) На добычу и промысел сельдевых акул, ареалом обитания и размножения которых являются воды Атлантики, ввели строгие ограничения после того, как Международный союз охраны природы присвоил этому виду статус сохранности «Виды на грани вымирания». 10) Развитые страны все больше прибегают к альтернативным формам энергии, более безвредным для окружающей среды, таким как солнечной и ветровой энергии.

Task 12. Answer the following questions on the text.
1)   Who were the first explorers of the South Pole and when did they reach the Antarctic?
2)   Why does the Antarctic represent the ultimate challenge to scientists?
3)   What evidence shows that the Antarctic holds the key to the natural history of the Earth?
4)   What factors have influenced the protection of all plants and animals in Antarctica?
5)   What does the “ecosystem approach” mean?
6)   What measures are taken to protect underwater creatures and control marine pollution?

Discussion

Task 13.
a. Read the article again and list the reasons why the Antarctic is the key to Planet Earth. Use your list to give a short speech to the class.

b.  Imagine you are a scientist in Antarctica. Describe a typical day in your life there.

c.  Imagine you are Roald Amundsen. Write two short diary entries - one about the first day you reached the South Pole and another while you explore the Antarctic. Compare with your partner.

Task 14. Text analysis.
a)    Analyze the title of the text. What is the role of paralinguistic means used in the title? What function does the topical sentence serve?
b)   What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
c)    Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs? Summarize the article.

*    Task 15. Watch the video Genetically Modified Food. Discuss it with your partner in the form of a dialogue, using words and set-expressions on the topic of discussion: genetically modified (GM) organisms, genetically modified food, genetic modification, modern biotechnology, non-related species, to enhance, nutrient, pesticide, to conserve, natural resources, initial objective, virus resistant, herbicide, toxicity, allergic reaction, to present risks for human health, consumption, labeling, transgenic crop.


Then, answer the following questions:
1.    What is GMO and GM food?
2.    What was the first GM food?
3.    Why are people so concerned about the impact of GM foods on their health?
4.    Is GM food always labeled?
5.    Give your arguments for and against GM foods.
6.    Write down a brief essay on GM food, summarizing all pros and cons.

Task 16. Make up a power-point presentation on one of the following topics:
1.    Climate change. Global warming.
2.    Protection of rare species of animals. Red data book.
3.    Solutions to environmental issues.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Task 17. Study the following words and expressions before doing the tasks of the language focus.
air/water pollution, nuclear power, to stop deforestation/ cutting down trees, endangered species, rubbish, acid rain, dioxins, carbon dioxide, fossil fuels, biodegradable packaging, animal protection, water consumption laws, anti-pollution warnings, a wildlife reserve, natural habitat, ozone hole, growing population, drastic measures, alternative energy forms,  to dispose of, environmentally friendly, energy crisis, short supply, a balanced ecosystem, organic farming, to deposit empty bottlers, wrapped up in paper and plastic, genetically engineered, in the wild, under threat, to suffer from, in captivity, landfill sites.

Task 18. Which environmental problems can you see in the pictures? Which one are you most concerned about?

A B
C  D

 air/water pollution
 nuclear power
 deforestation
 endangered species
 rubbish
 global warming

Task 19. You will hear five people expressing their views on environmental problems. For speakers 1 – 5, choose which of the problems (A – F) they are most anxious about. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use.
A. acid rain                    
B. dioxins                        
C. global warming
D. carbon dioxide E fossil fuels  
F. nuclear power           
Speaker 1____
Speaker 2 ____
Speaker 3____
Speaker 4____
Speaker 5____


Task 20. Use the words/phrases in the list to complete the sentences.
Laws, ecosystem, aware, reserve, packaging, warnings, habitat, farming, bank, energy, forms, protection.

1.  If everyone was environmentally ____, the world would be a better place to live in.
2.  A lot of companies have made great effort and now put their products in biodegradable ____.
3.  Organic ____ is becoming more and more popular because people know that the fruit and vegetables are free from chemicals.
4.  Many countries are choosing to use alternative ____, because they know that fossil fuels are not infinite.
5.  If there is not a balanced ____ many plants and animals will eventually die.
6.  She believes in recycling: she makes a weekly trip to the bottle ____.
7.  Animal ____ is an important part the work of the World Wildlife Fund.
8.  The main point of a wildlife ____ that animals live in their natural ____.
9.  Governments bring in water consumption ____ during a period of drought.
10. Unfortunately, people haven't been listen carefully enough to anti-pollution ____.

Task 21. What would you be willing to do to help the environment? Discuss.
A: I think we should all buy environmentally safe household cleaners.
B: That's a very good idea.

Task 22. Look at the newspaper headlines and, in pairs, discuss what each report is about.
KENYAN PRESENT TAKES
“DRASTIC MEASURES” TO STOP DEFORESTATION

Ozone Hole over Antarctica 10% smaller

SOUTH PACIFIC: HUMPBACK WHALE POPULATION GROWING 10% A YEAR


Australian Government Preserves
Great Barrier Reef


A: The first report is probably about how the Kenyan president has passed strict laws to stop people cutting down trees.
B: Yes... perhaps he's also created special forest reserves or something like that...

Task 23. Underline the correct item.
1.    An international agreement has been reached to halt the devastation/destruction of the ozone layer.
2.    Deforestation is causing great disaster/damage many of the world's rainforests.
3.    If global warming continues, we will suffer the effects/ consequences.
4.    Overpopulation is posing a threat to the Earth's resources/sources.
5.    Many charitable organisations contribute towards starvation/ famine relief.
6.    Most of the rubbish/residue collected from the city is dumped in landfill sites.
7.    Toxic waste/sewage is responsible for polluting many rivers.
8.    Exhaust fumes continue to pollute/contaminate the air, causing serious breathing problems.
9.    We were told to deposit/discard our empty bottles in the recycling bin.
10.     There has been a decline/lowering in the demand for GM foods.
11.     The government is looking at ways of protecting the country's physical/natural resources.
12.          The minister for the environment has devised a scheme/schedule to reduce pollution.

Task 24.
a.    Fill in the correct particles, then explain the phrasal verbs.
Going GREEN with food

Meat production requires a lot of land and uses 1 ___ a lot of water. If you don't want to give 2___ meat completely, try cutting 3 ___the amount of meat you eat.
 It may be fashionable to buy bottled water, but tap water is just as good. Filters can be used to improve the taste and you don't end 4 ___ a pile of plastic bottles that have to be thrown 5 ___if our food is wrapped ___ in paper and plastic, how much of it can be recycled? Read the green guide to recycling and try to look 7 ___ ___ products with less packaging.

  

The UK uses around 10 billion plastic bags every year. Most of them aren't biodegradable and they end 8 ___ in landfill sites. Switch to a re-usable carrier for your shopping.

b.    What would you do to help? To make the world greener.
1.    Name something you could give up.
2.    Name something you could cut down on.
3.    Name something you shouldn't throw away.

Task 25.
a. Match the words. Which phrase can be used to complete the caption?
take  engineered
toxic supply
energy       effect
short waste
environmentally          a difference
genetically extinction
make crisis
face   friendly


Скругленная прямоугольная выноска: “There are no labels. How are we supposed to know which fruit has been _____?”

 




b. Use above mentioned phrases to complete the sentences below.
1.    Tonnes of ____ is produced every year by factories.
2.    The new law regarding hunting will ____ next month.
3.    Because of pollution of their habitat, many animal species ____.   
4.    Food is in ____ in many developing countries.
5.    Most ____ goods are expensive.

Task 26. Fill in: of, under, in, to, by or from. Then, make sentences related to the environment.
1)    to dispose ____ (sth); 2) ____ the wild; 3) ____ control; 4) affected ____ (sth/sb); 5) lack ____(sth); 6) harmful ____; 7) ____ threat; 8) to suffer ____ sth; 9) ____ danger; 10) ____ captivity.

LISTENING

Ω Task 27. You will hear people talking in eight different situations. For questions 1-8, listen and choose the best answer, A, B or C.
1.     You are listening to part of a radio broadcast. What is the main purpose of the broadcast?
A. to advertise a tourist spot
B. to show the economic benefits of whale watching
C. to encourage the protection of whales
2.  You hear part of an interview at a demonstration. Who is being interviewed?
A. a protester                     
B. a shopkeeper
C. a motorist
3.  You hear a couple talking about a newspaper report. How does the man feel?
A. angry      
B. sympathetic
C. confused
4.  A woman is making a phone call. Where is she
phoning?
A a printing company  
B the town hall
C a shopping centre
5.    A man is phoning his local radio station. What
does he intend to do?
A. have the old factory closed down
B. reduce the number of flats being built
C. ask the council to build a school
6.  Listen to a couple talking about rubbish disposal. How often is the rubbish collected?
A. twice a week       
B. once a week
C. every day
7.    Listen to two people discussing a project. What
role does the man have?
A. He's a schoolteacher.
B. He's a competition organiser.
C. He's a parent.
8. You hear a man speaking about planting trees. How does he feel about the results?
A. suspicious 
B. amazed
C. disappointed

Task 28.
·        You will hear an interview with Peter Felps, who is talking about his job as a botanist on the Eden Project. Look at the picture and say what you think this project is.


b.The following are names of 'biomes' at Eden. Why do you think they have got these names?
1) Mediterranean
2) Tropical.

Ω c. Now listen and, for questions 1 – 10, complete the sentences with one to three words.

Peter works with a variety of plants on a _________________.
The Eden Project could be described as a ________________.
It wouldn't be possible to see everything in _______________.
A 'biome' is a ______________________________________.
In order to have a humid atmosphere they use ______________.
Rainforests have a 60-inch _____________________every year.
In cases of emergency, visitors can go to the cool room _______.
The atmosphere in the Mediterranean biome is ______________.
The Eden Project is a _________________ called the Eden Trust.
No more than _________________plants in Eden have been lost.

d. Have you heard of similar projects? How important do you think they are?


SPEAKING

Task 29.
a. The two photographs show different ways of helping the environment. Compare the photographs and say which way you think is more effective in helping the environment.

A B

b. How could people help protect the environment?

c. The two photographs show people harming the environment. Compare the photographs and say which one you think causes more damage.
A  B

d. In what other ways do people harm the environment?

Ω Task 30. Listen to two candidates doing the speaking tasks above and compare and contrast their performances according to the points in the list.
1)   repeats ideas and language _____
2)   covers all points in the question _____
3)   talks about one picture more than the other _____
4)   uses natural hesitation _____
5)   uses a range of vocabulary _____


 
Recycling in the United Kingdom
The majority of recycling undertaken in the United Kingdom is undertaken by statutory authorities. Local Authorities are responsible for the collection of municipal waste and operate contracts which are usually kerbside collection schemes. The Household Waste Recycling Act 2003 required local authorities in England to provide every household with a separate collection of at least two types of recyclable materials by 2010.
Local Authorities are given incentives towards meeting recycling targets set by European, national and regional Government by the imposition of financial penalties for failing to recycle. For example, levies are imposed on the proportion of waste material going to landfill under a landfill tax.
UK domestic recycling policy is geared towards encouraging more people to take control of recycling in their own homes, and over the last decade a number of new regulations have been introduced to encourage greater amounts of recycling. These include fines for people who don’t cut their household waste and a greater emphasis on separating waste into different recyclable materials, with each council applying different rules.
Recently, the focus has shifted from punishing those who don’t recycle enough to encouraging more people to recycle through rewarding the practice.
Other ways to improve recycling include taking glass items to bottle banks at supermarkets and composting biodegradable waste which prevents it from being sent to landfill. One of the best ways to recycle is to simply reuse items around the home rather than throwing them out.
UK recycling policy aims to improve recycling methods and levels across the UK. The four main materials that it focuses on are glass, paper, plastic and metal cans.


1. Glass - can be recycled in the form of bottles and jars which are crushed down and then melted. Glass can be recycled infinitely because it does not lose any of its quality. It uses a lot less energy, fewer raw materials and produces less CO2 than manufacturing glass from scratch. The main difficulty with recycling glass is the need to remove the unwanted materials that contaminate it and avoiding the mixing of different colours.
2. Paper. Nearly all types of waste paper are recyclable, and recycled paper requires a lot less energy and fewer raw materials to produce than manufacturing it from scratch. However, paper cannot be recycled indefinitely, and the normal amount of times it can be recycled is about six.
3. Plastic. The main problem with recycling plastic involves sorting the material because there are so many different types of plastic which complicate the process. For this reason plastic often has to be sorted by hand which can be very time consuming.
4. Metal cans. There is a high recycling rate for metal cans in the UK, with aluminium recycling and steel cans being the most common items. Metal can be recycled indefinitely, and aluminium cans use just 5% of the energy needed to produce them from scratch and only release 5% of the amount of greenhouse gases. In addition, it is the easiest material to extract and separate from the other recyclables, using magnets for steel cans and special magnets (eddy currents) it guarantees recycling of every can.

Task 36. Can you provide any examples of recycling in your country?

Writing
Reviews are brief accounts of books, films, plays, CDs, etc. Their purpose is to inform readers and viewers, while also giving opinions and recommendations about whether or not they should buy a CD, read a book, watch a film, etc.
Reviews should include:
   an introduction which gives facts and background information concerning the book, CD, etc (i.e. the title, the name of the artist/author, type, etc)
   a main body, usually made up of two paragraphs: one describing the main features of the subject (e.g. the plot), and another including general comments and the writer's opinion (e.g. the acting, musical style, etc)     
   a conclusion which includes a recommendation of the book, CD, play, etc, supported by reasons.
Reviews are normally found in newspapers, magazines or as parts of a letter. The style used depends on the publication and the intended reader; therefore, it can be either formal or semi-formal. Present tenses are normally used, as well as a variety of adjectives to make the review more interesting to the reader.

Task 37.
a. Read the rubric and underline the key words. Then answer the questions.
Your school newspaper has asked students to submit reviews of films that they have recently seen which are related to the environment. Write your review, giving a brief summary of the plot and saying why you think it might interest other people.
1.  Who is going to read the review?
2.  Which of the following should you include?
    the end of the story
    recommendation
    the main points of the plot
    type of film / name of director
    when and where you saw the film
    main characters / names of actors
    awards the film has won (if any)
3.  Which tenses should you use?

b. Read the model and match the paragraphs to the topics.
·       recommendation
·       general comments
·       main points of the plot
·       background information

                

1___ Erin Brockovich is a true story about woman's courageous fight to beat the system.  The film's director is Steven Soderbergh and the cast includes Julia Roberts as Erin Brockovich, a single mother of three, and Albert Finney as Ed Masry, her sympathetic attorney and later boss.
2___ Set in a small California town, the story begins when, after a car accident leaves her with no money and no job, Erin begs Ed to let her work at his law firm. While working there, she accidentally comes across some medical files. Sensing that something is not right, she convinces Ed to let her look into the matter. Soon, Erin discovers that a power company has polluting the city's water supply, causing many of its residents to develop serious illnesses.
3___ The film is full of emotional moments as Erin wins the trust of the suspicious but frightened local citizens. The actors, especially Roberts, who won the Oscar award for Best Actress, give moving and believable performances, and the directing is excellent.
4___ This film is well worth seeing. It will touch your heart and make you cheer for ordinary people. Don't miss it!

c. Answer the questions.
1. Does the writer give a detailed account of the story, or a brief summary?
2. What background information does the writer give?
3. Is this a positive or a negative review? What phrases does the writer use to recommend or not recommend the film?
4. Does he/she reveal the end of the story?
5. Has the writer used:

passive voice?
a variety of adjectives?
colloquial expressions?
complex sentences?
abbreviations?

Task 38. Choose useful phrases below to make sentences based on the model in Task 37.
Erin Brockovich is set in a small town in California.

Useful Language: Vocabulary / Phrases / Expressions
Background
The film/story is set in ...
This well-written/informative/ fascinating book
This original first novel ...
The film/book tells the story of...
The book/novel was written by ...
The film is directed by ...
This work is based on ...
It is a comedy/horror film/love story.

Main points of the plot:
The plot focuses on ...
The story begins/concerns/is about...
The plot has an unexpected twist ...
The film reaches a dramatic climax ...
The plot is (absolutely) thrilling/(rather) boring.

General comments and opinion:
It is rather confusing/long/slow/boring.
The cast is excellent/weak/awful/unconvincing.
The script is dull/clever/exciting.
It has a tragic/surprising/dramatic end.
It is beautifully/poorly/badly written.
It doesn't come across as ...
The arrangements are simple/effective/
complicated.
rich/dull sound
catchy tune
features a variety of musical instruments
powerful/weak voice
musically satisfying

Useful language: Recommendations
Don't miss it.
It is well worth seeing.
It will change the way you see ..."
I wouldn't recommend it because ...
It's bound to be a box-office hit.
I highly/thoroughly/strongly recommend it.
Wait until it comes out on DVD.
It is a highly entertaining read.
It's a bore to read.
It's certainly at the top of my list.
Fans will no doubt be thrilled with this.
It's a must!
Don't bother with this one.

Analysing a book review
Task 39. Read the book review and put the paragraphs into the correct order. What is each paragraph about? How does the writer recommend the book? Suggest an alternative recommendation.
WOMAN IN THE MISTS
___A The book relates how Fosse a zoologist, moves to the Varunga mountains to study gorillas. After months of hard work, she is finally accepted into their group, playing wrestling and even hugging these animals. Soon, however, Fossey's world is threatened as poachers start to hunt and kill her beloved friends.
___b  I highly recommend Woman in the Mists. It is beautifully written and will leave the reader with a better understanding of this truly remarkable woman.
___C  The drama-filled story is gripping from beginning to end. It is full of touching moments as Fosse struggles to save these often misunderstood but affectionate animals. Mowat's admiration for Fossey shows clearly in the book description of her love for the gorillas and her deep respect for the natural environment in which she lived.
___D  Woman in the Mists, by Farley Mowat, is an inspiring story that takes place in the Varunga Mountains in Rwanda, Africa. This wonderfully written book is the biography of Dian Fossey, an intelligent and determined woman who devoted her life to protecting the wild mountain gorillas.

Task 40. Look at the rubrics below, underline the key words and, for each one, answer the questions that follow. Using the information you have learned in this unit, and your answers to the questions below, write any of the tasks below. You should write between 120 and 180 words.
·       A magazine has asked its readers to send in reviews of their favourite films.
Write your review for the magazine, mentioning the main points of the plot and including general comments about the acting and directing as well as your recommendation.
·       Your teacher has asked you to write a review of a book you have recently read, to be published in the school newspaper.
Write your review for the newspaper, giving brief details of the plot and saying whether you recommend it or not.


SUPPLEMENTARY READING I

ISHMAEL
SUPPLEMENTARY READING II

WWF: 50 years of environmental conservation

WWF came into existence on 29 April 1961, when a small group of passionate and committed individuals signed a declaration that came to known as the Morges Manifesto.
This apparently simple act laid the foundations for one what has grown into the world's largest independent conservation organization.
More than 50 years on, the black and white panda is a well known household symbol in many countries. And the organization itself is lucky enough to have won the backing of more than 5 million people throughout the world, and can count the actions taken by people in support of its efforts into the billions. 
The world on which we live
Having invested well over US$1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1985 alone, WWF is continually working to bring a balance between our demands on our world, and the variety of life that lives alongside us.
What is the story behind the panda logo of WWF?
The inspiration came from Chi-Chi: a giant panda that had arrived at the London Zoo in the year 1961, when WWF was being created.
Aware of the need for a strong, recognisable symbol that would overcome all language barriers, WWF's founders agreed that the big, furry animal with her appealing, black-patched eyes would make an excellent logo.
The first sketches were done by the British environmentalist and artist, Gerald Watterson.
Based on these, Sir Peter Scott, one of those founders, drew the first logo, and said at the time... "We wanted an animal that is beautiful, is endangered, and one loved by many people in the world for its appealing qualities. We also wanted an animal that had an impact in black and white to save money on printing costs."
The black-and-white panda has since come to stand as a symbol for the conservation movement as a whole.
WWF's mission is to stop the degradation of our planet's natural environment, and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.
In order to achieve this mission, WWF focuses its efforts on two broad areas: 
·                    Biodiversity
·                    Footprint
The first, is to ensure that the earth's web of life – biodiversity – stays healthy and vibrant for generations to come. We are strategically focusing on conserving critical places and critical species that are particularly important for the conservation of our earth's rich biodiversity. 
The second, is to reduce the negative impacts of human activity - ourecological footprint. We are working to ensure that the natural resources required for life -land, water, air - are managed sustainably and equitably.
WWF has developed a science-based, strategic plan to achieve its goals. This global conservation framework:
  • Uniquely combines traditional conservation with work to address the global dynamics driving biodiversity loss and humanity’s unsustainable use of natural resources
  • Focuses efforts on the most important places, species, and footprint areas, and integrates this work from the local level to the global
  • Taps into the enormous power we all have – as consumers, local community members, landowners, politicians, policy makers, business & industry leaders, development & conservation workers, farmers, and fishers – to protect biodiversity and steer the world towards sustainability


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