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вторник, 12 апреля 2016 г.



UNIT SIX
EDUCATION
Lead-in
Task 1.     
a. Look at the pictures. What do they have in common?
 
 A………………       B………………      C………………
   
 D……………….              E………………….

b. Match the words to make job titles, then use them to label the pictures.

university                    teacher
personal                       trainer
driving                         instructor
basketball                    lecturer
primary school            coach.

Task 2. What makes a ‘good’ teacher? Rank the points in order of importance, then compare your list to your list partner’s.
patience, strictness, being a good listener, kindness, sense of humour, sense of fairness, ability to stimulate students, air of authority, enthusiasm, knowledge of the subject

Task 3. The chart on the next columns shows how a group of British students responded to the question.
What are the most important factors for success at school?”

Do you agree with the findings of the survey? Discuss in groups.
• motivation -------------------------29%
• being disciplined -----------------22%
• being organized -------------------16%
• confidence -------------------------13%
• high IQ -----------------------------7%
• alertness ----------------------------6%
• concentration ----------------------4%
• natural talent ----------------------3%

A: Personally, I would rank concentration higher.
B: I agree. I think it’s more important than having a high IQ, for example.
C: I see your point. However, I think that the findings are correct as far as being disciplined is concerned.

Task 4.
a. Paraphrase the following statement. Then, listen to some teachers and students discussing it and match the opinions to the speakers.

Education is a matter between the person and the world of knowledge; school or college has little to do with it.

1__ Stephen 3__ Sarah
2__ Paul 4__ Alan

1. Schools guide us.
2. Schools neglect more intelligent students.
3. Computers open up new roads in education.
4. Students should help shape their educational experience.

b. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Tell the class.

c. Do you think learning will ever take place without teachers? Classrooms? Schools in general? Discuss in pairs.


READING I.
THE SYSTEM OF SCHOOLING                                          IN GREAT BRITAIN
Education is compulsory from the age of five to sixteen, and there is usually a move from primary to secondary school at about the age of eleven, but schools are organized in a number of different ways. There is no law which provides for education of the under-fives. In England about 47 per cent of three- and four-year-olds receive education in nursery schools or classes. In addition many children attend informal pre-school play groups organized by parents and voluntary bodies.
For many years the education service has been characterized by change. The provision (обеспечение) of maintained school education is the responsibility of local education authorities (LEAs). They employ teachers and other staff, provide and maintain buildings, supply equipment and materials, provide grants to students proceeding to further and higher education. The Department of Education and Science maintains overall control although local education authorities and head teachers have considerable powers in planning and administration. Plans were introduced into Parliament in 1988 for more centralized control, including a national curriculum for all schools.
Schools Maintained by the State. No fees are charged to parents of the children at maintained schools, and books and equipment are free. Schools supported from public funds are of two main kinds in England and Wales: county schools and voluntary schools. County schools are provided and maintained by LEAs wholly out of public funds. Voluntary schools, mostly established by religious denominations (конфессия), are also wholly maintained from public funds but the governors of some types of voluntary schools contribute to capital costs. Nearly a third of primary and secondary maintained schools in England and Wales are voluntary schools, most of them Anglican or Roman Catholic. All children in county or voluntary schools receive religious education by law and take part in a daily corporate act of worship unless their parents choose otherwise.
Education within the maintained school system usually comprises two stages – primary education and secondary education.
Primary Schooling. Compulsory education begins at five when children in England and Wales go to infant schools or departments; at seven many go on to junior schools or departments. The usual age of transfer from primary to secondary schools is 11, but a number of LEAs in England have established "first" schools for pupils aged 5 to 8, 9 or 10 and "middle" schools covering various age ranges between 8 and 14.
Secondary Schooling. The publicly maintained system of education aims to give all children an education suited to their particular abilities. Until the 1960s most children took an examination at the end of primary school (the Eleven Plus): those who passed it successfully went to grammar schools while those who did not went to secondary modern schools. A few areas especially in the south of England still have selective exams at the age of eleven, but about 90 per cent of secondary schools in Britain are now comprehensive.
They take pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and provide a wide range of secondary education for all or most of the children from their local area.
Special schools cater for a wide variety of handicap.
The Curriculum. The content of the secular (мирской) curriculum in maintained schools in England and Wales is the responsibility of the LEA and of the schools' governors. In practice, responsibility is largely devolved on head teachers and their staff. The government has issued guidance on the curriculum for both primary and secondary school pupils. It considers that secondary pupils up to the age of 16 should follow a broad curriculum including English, Mathematics and Science, some study of the humanities including History, Religion and Physical education, and opportunities for both practical and aesthetic activities. Most pupils should also study a foreign language. A programme of development projects has been introduced to provide a more effective education with a practical slant for lower-attaining pupils who do not benefit fully from existing courses.
Independent Schools. Most parents choose to send their children to free state schools financed from public funds but an increasing number of secondary pupils attend fee-paying independent schools outside the school system. Many of these are boarding schools, which provide accommodation for pupils during term time. There are about 2,500 independent schools educating more than 500,000 pupils of all ages. They charge fees, varying from about £ 100 a term for day pupils at nursery age to £ 2,000 a term for senior boarding pupils.
Independent schools for older pupils – from 11, 12 or 13 to 18/19 – include nearly 500. They are sometimes confusingly referred to as "public schools" in England and Wales. Today the term is becoming less frequently used but refers to the mainly boys’ schools (which are increasingly admitting girls).
Preparatory schools prepare children for the Common Entrance Examination to senior schools. The normal age range is from seven plus to 11, 12 or 13, but many of the schools now have pre-preparatory departments for younger children.
Examinations. Since 1988, most sixteen-year-olds have taken the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in five, ten or even fifteen subjects.
Pupils going on to higher education or professional training usually take 'A' level examinations in two or three subjects. These require two more years of study after GCSE, either in the sixth form of a secondary school, or in a separate sixth-form college. Other pupils may choose vocational subjects such as catering, tourism, secretarial or building skills. Subsidized courses in these subjects are run at colleges of further education.
School-leavers with jobs sometimes take part-time vocational courses, on day-release from work. School-leavers without jobs get no money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme, which provides a living allowance during two years of work experience.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE
GLOSSARY

1. free/fee-paying
1.    2. compulsory education
2.    curriculum
1.     to keep an eye on sb.
2.     nursery/ infant/primary/junior school
3.     to get acquainted
4.     secondary education
5.     to be divided into
6.     Science / Art
7.    core subject
8.    comprehensive/grammar/modern/boarding/public/private/ voluntary/preparatory/school
9.    entrance
10.                 lower-attaining pupils
11.                 single sex school
12.                 GCSE
13.                 A” (advanced) Level Exam
14.                 extramural
15.                 polytechnic
16.                 practical slant
17.                 part-time courses
18.                 day-release
19.                 vocational subjects
20.                 without reference to ability or aptitude
21.                 Degree of a Bachelor
22.                 Master's Degree
23.                 Doctor's Degree

Task 5.

a. Find words/phrases in the text
something that must be done because of a rule or law, capacity, fee paying school, teacher or coach, of teaching or lectures for people who are not full-time students at a college.

b. Give opposites.
to attend, core subject, single sex school, private school, primary school, compulsory.

c. Translate into English.
основной предмет, частная школа, привилегированная частная школа, экзамен на сертификат об окончании среднего образования, способность, общеобразовательная школа, детский сад (государственный), начальная школа (для детей от 7 до 11 лет), естествознание, экзамен уровня ‘А’ (продвинутого), преподаватель, политехникум, изобразительное искусство, среднее образование, степень бакалавра.

Task 6. Paraphrase the sentences using words and word combinations given in the Glossary.
1) A lot of children go to informal pre-school play groups organized by parents and voluntary bodies. 2) The publicly maintained system of education aims to give all children an education suited to their particular capacity. 3) In the south of England they still have selective exams at the age of eleven, but about 90 per cent of secondary schools in Britain are now inclusive. 4) The government has issued guidance on the course of study for both primary and secondary school pupils. 5) Most parents choose to send their children to not fee-paying state schools financed from public funds.6) Many of these are schools, which provide accommodation for pupils during term time. 7) They take pupils without reference to aptitude and provide a wide range of secondary education. 8) The provision of maintained school education is the responsibility of district powers.

Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English.
1) В большинстве школ физическое воспитание является обязательным. В хорошую погоду, уроки физкультуры проводятся на улице, а в плохую в школьном спортзале.  2) Государственный детский сад работает с 8.45 до 15.00 и родители могут выбрать время пребывания ребенка в саду и количество дней в неделю, которые ребенок будет в нем проводить. Оплата идет из расчета за сессию, которая равна 2.5 часам, и, чтобы попасть в тот сад, который тебя устраивает, нужно подать заявление за полгода до предполагаемой даты. 3) Ознакомившись с иммиграционным законодательством Англии я понял, что получить гражданство не так сложно, как принято считать. 4) Традиционно среднее образование в Великобритании дети получают в частных школах-пансионатах. Их в стране более двух тысяч. Располагаются они в предместьях городов в живописных местах, имеют развитую инфраструктуру, позволяющую детям не только полноценно учиться, но и жить спокойной жизнью. 5) Школьная программа ребенка среднего возраста очень насыщена: занятия начинаются с 8.30 утра и до 17.30, а также предусматривается перерыв на обед. В программе различные академические и факультативные предметы. 6) Важнейшим показателем  качества образования в начальных школах считается количество учеников в одном классе.  Местные органы образования в Англии и Уэльсе обязаны распределить детей младшего возраста в начальных школах таким образом, чтобы в одном классе не было больше тридцати учеников. 7) Все государственные школы обязаны обеспечить учащимся  возможность изучать религию. В программах религиозного образования должно присутствовать изучение христианства, также и других основных религий, которые исповедуют проживающие на территории Великобритании граждане. 8) Высшее образование можно получить в университете или колледже высшего образования. Каждое из этих учебных заведений имеет право присваивать степени и выдавать дипломы либо от своего лица, либо от лица одной из национально призванных организаций, членом которой оно является. 9)  Степень бакалавра – это первая ступень высшего образования. В общем, для поступления на этот уровень обучения нужно иметь сертификат о среднем образовании углубленного уровня. (GCE/A level). 10) Учебный год в Великобритании начинается в первых числах сентября и завершается летом ближе к 20 июля. Он  разделен на три семестра (осенний, весенний и летний), в промежутках между которыми ученики отдыхают на каникулах, которые довольно продолжительные (обычно такие каникулы называют Рождественскими и Пасхальными) и короткие («половинчатые») в середине семестра.

Task 8. Answer the following questions on the text.
1.    When do British boys and girls begin to go to school?
2.    What subjects do they study at school?
3.    How long does secondary education last?
4.    What subjects are called "core" subjects?
5.    At what age do children have their exams?
6.    What's the difference between modern and grammar schools?
7.    What are private schools?
8.      Would you like to study in Britain? Why?
9.     Compare British and Russian education.
Task 9. Text analysis
а) What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
b)   Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs?
c)    Summarize the article. Mind the rules of summary writing.

*    Task 10. Watch the video clip “Great Education of Great Britain”. In pairs, discuss the history of system of education in GB. Compare it with the one we have in Russia.

Task 11. Make up a power-point presentation on one of the following topics.
1) Primary and secondary education.
2) Types of schools.
3)Higher education in England.

LANGUAGE FOCUS
EDUCATION
Ω Task 12.
a. Listen to a teacher comparing British and American education and complete the chart about the American system.
USA
Age
1)_____
5
elementary school
6 – 11
2) _____ high school
12/13 – 15
senior high school
3)
university
4) _____
other training institution
18+
b. How similar/different is the education system in your country? Discuss in pairs.
Task 13.
a. Underline the correct word.
1) Tom went to boarding/grammar school, so the only came home during the holidays.
2) I want my children to go to a single sex/comprehensive school because I think it’s better for boys and girls to learn separately.
3) Most children go to state/public school where education is free.
4) My parents couldn’t afford to send me to a grammar/private school when I was young.
5) Eton and Harrow are famous state/public schools.

b. What types of schools are there in your country?

Task 14.
a. Look at the abbreviations below. What do you think the letters stand for?
GCSE, NVQ, A' Level, HND, BA/BSc, MA/MSc, PhD
b. At what age do you think students might obtain these qualifications? What are the nearest equivalents in your country?

Task 15. Fill in: fail; pass; take; sit; resit in the correct form.
1) I always revise thoroughly before I have to ______ an exam.
2) He’s ______ his driving test next week.
3) Pat ______ her exams with flying colours.
4) I’m not surprised he ______ his exams, he didn’t revise at all.
5) If she doesn’t get enough marks in her exams, she will ______ them in September.

Task 16. Collocations. Match the verbs to the nouns, then make sentences using the collocations.
1) attend, go to, take, miss, hold, dismiss grade
2) run, offer, do, take, enroll on, pass, fall class
3) achieve, get, receive course

Task 17. Underline the correct words.
1) The course is designed to develop/promote special study skills.
2) The institute only keeps/holds evening classes.
3) She has been accepted/admitted at York University.
4) I’m afraid you can’t hold/keep a private conversation here.
5) He retired at the end of a thirty-year teaching post/career.
6) Apply for a fee/grant if you want to go to university.

Task 18. Phrasal verbs. Fill each gap with the correct particle, then explain the phrasal verbs.
over, up,  behind, off, out

1. Juliet was new to the class and had to do extra work to catch _____ with the others.
2. If you miss school for more than a couple of days, you are in danger of falling _____ with your work.
3. I need to go _____ my History notes because we’ve got a test on Monday.
4. If you don’t pay attention, how do you expect to keep _____ with the lesson?
5. Look _____ the word in the dictionary if you are not sure what it means.
6. We had to put _____ our Biology field trip because the weather was so bad.
7. Simon was told _____ severely when his parents saw his school report.
8 We couldn’t work _____ what had gone wrong with our science experiment, so in the end we had to start again.

Task 19. Underline the correct word in each of the sentences below. What do the phrases mean? Are there similar idioms in your language?
1 Claire learnt the poem by heart/mind before the presentation.
2 If you want to make the grade/result you’ll have to study very hard.
3 I’m going to learn/teach that boy a lesson he won’t forget.
4 Jacob is in a lesson/class of his own, his work is always excellent.
5 Sarah is very studious. She’s always got her eyes/nose in a book.
6 In primary school everyone called me the teacher’s love/pet because I always got good grades.


Task 20. Fill in: in, for, of, then make sentences about education.
1. to prepare………/revise……../study……an exam;
2. to be top…….. the class; 3 to specialize……. sth

LISTENING & SPEAKING

STUDYING ABROAD
Task 21
a.    You will hear five people talking about exams. Before you listen, look at the six phrases (A – F) listed below. What do you expect each speaker to talk about?

Ω b. For speakers 1 – 5, choose which of the subjects (A – F) the people are talking about. there is one extra subject which you do not need to use.
a) Lack of confidence
b) Working too hard
c) Pressure to do well from a parent
d) A new kind of exam
e) A new way of marking
f) A surprising result
Speaker 1__
Speaker 2__
Speaker 3__
Speaker 4__
Speaker 5__

Task 21.
a. You will listen to a radio interview about the problem of truancy. Before you listen, discuss the following.
1) In your opinion, what are the reasons students stay away from school? Think about.
boredom, influence of friends, problems at school, family problems
2) What problems can truancy cause a student?
3) Look at the questions 1 to 7 below, underline the key words and try to predict the right answer.

Ω b. Listen to the interview and for questions 1 – 7 choose the correct answer (A,B or C).
1. Dr. Greenway implies that some children who play truant
A. do so in order to earn money
B. behave badly in public
C. are never punished
2. Why do some parents take their children on holiday during term time?
A. Because it’s peak season.
B. To spend time together as a family.
C. To save money.
3. Why is it difficult for schools to convince students to attend regularly?
A. Parents set a bad example for them.
B. There is no good reason to attend.
C. To save money.
4. How has the government reacted to truancy?
A. They had been trying to stop it for years.
B. They are just beginning to help.
C. They think it is too late to do anything.
5. Why are the government having talks with travel agents?
A. To convince them to offer parents cheap holidays.
B. To make sure that children don’t play truant.
C. To get help from them in combating truancy.
6. What are the aims of ‘behaviour improvement projects’?
A. To teach parents to be more responsible.
B. To teach students the lessons they have missed.
C. To teach students to take school more serious.
7. What does Dr Greenway say about the law against truancy?
A. The law is not strict enough.
B. Parents are not often prosecuted.
C. Many parents face criminal charges.

c. Which of the following things do you think would be most effective in combating truancy? Rank them, then compare your list to your partner’s.
__ more interesting lessons
__ police involvement
__ more responsible parenting
__ strict punishment
__ teaching students to respect school.

Task 22.
Students A& B
You are planning to study abroad for one year. The photographs show some of the things you are you are planning to take with you. First, talk to each other about how useful each of these items is and then decide which two items you would not take with you.

How useful are each of these items?
Which two would you not take with you?


Task 23. Discuss three of the following questions.
1.    What are the reasons people go away to study?
2.    What problems can someone who is studying abroad face?
3.    Would you like to study in a foreign country? Why not?

Ω Task 24. Listen to two candidates doing the speaking tasks above and assess them in terms of:
         grammar accuracy
         pronunciation
         interactivity


READING II

TOM BROWN’S SCHOOLDAYS


Thomas Hughes (1822-1896), a famous British novelist, is remembered mainly for his novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays (1857). The novel is set at Rugby School where Hughes himself was educated.
Conditions were tough. Corporal punishment was acceptable and bullying became an everyday part of life with less capable boys

being made fun of and clever ones treated unfairly. In this extract, Tom is slowly transformed from a quiet, innocent young boy, to a noisy and rather badly-behaved one…
Other works by Tomas Hughes are: Tom Brown at Oxford, A Layman’s faith, etc.

The fourth form, in which Tom found himself at the beginning of the next half-year, was the largest form in the lower school and numbered upwards of forty boys. Young gentlemen of all ages from nine to fifteen were to be found there, expending their energy on the Latin and Greek texts that were
 handed out daily. Having to teach this form must have been difficult work for the unfortunate master as it was the most unhappily constituted class in the school. Here were the weaker boys, who, for the life of them, could never learn the necessary grammar for them to move to a higher form. They were the objects of amusement and terror to the youngsters, who were daily pointing out their mistakes and laughing at them in the lesson, and getting kicked by them for doing so in play-hours. There were no less than three unhappy fellows whom the Doctor and the master of the form were always endeavoring to promote into the upper school, but whose efforts resisted the most well-meant pushes. Then came the mass of the form, boys of eleven and twelve, the most mischievous and restless age of the British youth, of whom East and Tom Brown were fair specimens. As full of tricks as monkeys, they were always making fun of their master, one another, and their lessons and trying to get them to be steady or serious for half an hour together was simply hopeless. The remainder of the form consisted of clever young boys of nine or ten, who were going up the school at the rate of a form a half year, all boys’ ?hands and wits against them in their progress. It would have been one man’s work to see that the talented youngsters had fair play and as the master had other things to do, these boys were forever being shoved, their books stolen or written on, their jackets whitened and in general, their lives made difficult for them.
Tom had come up from the third with a good character, but the temptations of the fourth soon proved too strong for him, and he rapidly fell away, and became as unmanageable as the rest. For some weeks he succeeded in maintaining the appearance of steadiness and was looked upon favourably by his new form master, whose eyes were soon opened to Tom’s true character.
The only occasions which the pupils really cared about were the monthly examinations when the Doctor came round to examine their form, for one long, awful hour in the work which they had done in the preceding month. Tom’s second monthly examination came round and the boys waited anxiously for it to begin. Tom never lifted his eyes from his book but could feel the Doctor’s mood as he whispered to the master. At last the whispering ceased, and the name called out was not Brown.
The boy who was called up to be examined first was a clever, merry boy and a great favourite of the Doctor, who asked him to translate a Latin passage. On common occasions the boy could have translated the passage well enough, but now his head was gone and he made some terrible mistakes. A shudder ran through the whole form and the Doctor’s wrath fairly boiled over. He made three steps up to the boy, and gave him a good box on the ear. The blow was not a hard one, but the boy was so taken by surprise that he fell back over the bench onto the floor behind. There was a dead silence over the whole school. Never before and never again while Tom was at school did the Doctor strike a boy in a lesson. The provocation must have been great.
Task 25.
Match the highlighted words in the passage with their synonyms below. Then, explain the words in bold.
Irresponsible, naughty, previous, quickly, unlucky, stopped, advance.

Task 26.
Find all the words/phrases in the text related to education. Which of them are not used today?
c. The following phrases are taken from the passage. Explain them in your own words.
• _____ the most unhappy constituted class _____.
• They were the objects of amusement and terror to the youngsters _____.
• _____ as full of tricks as monkeys _____.
• _____ simply hopeless _____.
• _____ would have been one man’s work to see that _____.
• _____ temptations proved too strong _____.
• _____ was looked upon favourably _____.
• _____ a shudder ran through the form _____.
• _____ a dead silence _____.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE
GLOSSARY
1. tough (conditions, problem, policy)
2. corporal punishment
3. to bully, bullying
4. to make fun of
5. lower school/upper school
6. to expend one’s energy
7. to hand out (to be handed out)
8. to move to a higher form
9. form master
10. to be the object of amusement and terror to sb.
11. to point out
12. to be laughed at
13. to get kicked by sb.
14. to ΄endeavour
15. to promote into
16. mischievous
17. reckless
18. specimen (a queer specimen)
19. to shove, to be shoved
20. temptation (irresistible, strong temptation; to overcome/resist temptation; to succumb to temptation; to yield to temptation)
21. to fall away
22. unmanageable
23. to succeed in sth. (doing sth.)
24. to look upon sb. favorably
25. to cease (to cease work, to cease fire, without cease)
26. to be sb`s favourite
27. shudder (to give one the shudders)
28. wrath
29. to boil over
30. to give sb. box on the ear

Task 27. Give English equivalents for.
задирать (запугивать); указывать(обращать внимание на); гнев; получить взбучку от кого-либо; классный наставник (руководитель); младшие классы/старшие классы; высмеивать (подшучивать над кем-либо); толкать; неуправляемый; пытаться (прилагать усилия); кипеть от негодования / возмущаться; поддаться искушению; нагнать страху на кого-либо (не устоять перед искушением -дать оба синонима); жесткая политика; телесное наказание; потушить огонь; вредный / шаловливый.

Task 28. Paraphrase or give synonyms to the words and phrases from the text.
unlucky, advance, naughty, irresponsible, to give out, children, teacher, trying, examples, things you want to do which you shouldn’t, a feeling of great fear, anger, the reason for sb. to react angrily.

Task 29. Translate the following sentences into English:
1.    Глаза Джона наполнились гневом, когда он осознал, что над ним посмеялись. Ему хотелась надавать пощечин своим обидчикам, но было уже слишком поздно. 2) Пожилой актрисе было приятно думать, что она преуспела в жизни, и к своим преклонным годам ее успех у зрительской аудитории все еще не ослабел окончательно. 3) Все местные новости сообщают, что между конфликтующими сторонами наступило временное перемирие, и власти решили прекратить огонь. 4) Несмотря на крайне сложные условия в семье, талантливый мальчик успешно перешел в старшую школу. 5) Удивительно, но самый непослушный и дерзкий ученик в классе стал любимчиком классного руководителя. 6) Маленький и слабый мальчик был постоянным объектом развлечения и издевательства для более сильных и взрослых одноклассников. 7) Классный руководитель часто унижал учеников, и его голос, когда он говорил с гневом, заставлял их дрожать. 8) Директор школы выступал за телесное наказание и считал чудаками всех, кто относился к детям с любовью и заботой. 9) Большинство учеников класса были неуправляемыми подростками и расходовали всю свою энергию на драки и бесконечные склоки. 10) Каждый раз, когда учитель раздавал учащимся контрольные работы, он внимательно указывал на возможные ошибки и очень старался помочь отстающим ученикам.

Task 30. Discuss the following.
1. What do you think ‘tough conditions’ might have included?
2. Does bullying exist in schools in your country?
3. What actions can be described as bullying?
4. Give summary of the text.

Task 31.
a. How do you think bulling can affect a child’s behaviour? What can be done about it?
b. Is corporal punishment allowed at schools in your country? Why (not)? Do you think there are any occasions when it might be acceptable?

*   Task 32. Watch the video “Education in Great Britain”.
1. Full time education in the UK is compulsory between ___ and ___.
2. About___ per cent of pupils in the UK receive free education, the other ___ per cent attend private schools.
3. Children attend ______ school from the ages of __ to __. One of its aims is to teach children to____ well and to ______.
4. Children go to __________ school when they are eleven.
5. After they are sixteen students take ____ exams.
6. The majority of universities teach by____ and ____. Students work___.

WRITING
OPINION
Opinion articles or letters are written when we want to express our personal opinion on a particular topic. They can be articles for publication, compositions for a class assignment, letters to be the press/authorities, or letters to a friend. They should include relevant information to support our opinion, and use an appropriate style depending on who is going to read the piece of writing.
In the first paragraph we should introduce the topic and state our opinion clearly. If we write a letter giving our opinion, start the introduction by giving the reason for writing.
The main body consists of two or more paragraphs each presenting a separate viewpoint supported by reason/examples. We can also write a separate paragraph which states the opposing viewpoint.
The final paragraph summarises/restates our opinion using different words.

Task 33. Read the task, underline the key words and answer the questions.
Your town has recently been given a large youth development grant from the government to improve the recreational facilities for young people in your town. The money could be spent on either a new sports centre or a new entertainment complex. Write a letter to the editor of your local newspaper, giving your opinion on how the money should be spent and why.
1. What do you have to write?
2. Who is the target reader?
3. What style should you use? Why?
4. What is your opinion on the topic?
5. Which of the following points are relevant to the question?
a.__ Sports facilities in school are limited.
b.__ The town’s cinema is old.
c.__ Young people have few free-time activities.
d.__ The grant is a large amount of money.
e.__ There is no sports centre at present.
6. How would you support each of the points you chose from above?
7. What information should you include in your introduction?
8. How could you end your letter?

Task 34.
a.    Read the letter and choose the correct topic sentences from the ones below.
A.  On the other hand, a sports centre also has disadvantages.
B.  What is more, playing a sport can build character.
C.  To start with, it will provide many new jobs.
D.  Firstly, there are very few sports facilities in our town.
E.  However, an entertainment complex would also be a good addition to our town.
F.  Furthermore, I could suggest an excellent location.

Dear Sir/Madam,
 I am writing with regard to the youth development grant to your town was recently awarded. I am of the opinion that the money should be spent on a new sports centre for a number of reasons.
 1__ if a sports centre were built, more young people would have the opportunity to play sports. Moreover, it would provide youngsters with a pleasant and positive pastime. As it is, they have very few options open to them. In addition, it would give them access to better facilities than are currently available in schools.
 2__ Positive qualities, such as team spirit, fair play and friendly competition are developed. This is something we should encourage in our young people.
 3__ In particular, a modern cinema is a facility sorely lacking in our area. Nevertheless, I feel helping our youth stay healthy and fit is more important.
To sum up, I believe building a sports centre is the best use for the grant money, as it would be most beneficial for young people in our town. I hope that the town council agrees and starts work as soon as possible.
Yours faithfully,
Clive Dunn

b. Has the writer mentioned all the points in his letter? Suggest an alternative conclusion for the letter.

Task 35. Planning your paragraph. Complete the plan with questions below.
a)    What can you say in support of your opinion?
b)   What do you hope the reader(s) will do?
c)    What is the opposing viewpoint?
d)   What is your opinion?
e)    What is the reason/justification for this?

Plan
Dear Sir/Madam,
Introduction
(Para 1) • What is your reason for writing?
 •…………………………………
Main Body
(Para 2) • ………………………………..
 What would the consequences/results be?
(Para 3) •What else can you say un support of your opinion?
 • ……………………………………
(Para 4) • …………………………………….
 Why does this not change your opinion?
Conclusion
(Para 5) • What is your opinion (again)?
 •………………………………………
Yours faithfully,
(your full name)

b. Does the model in Ex. 34a follow the paragraph plan above?

Task 36. Use the words/phrases below to complete the table, as in the example.
to begin with, whilst, nevertheless, furthermore, to start with,  therefore, on the other hand, for instance, in addition, because, then, all in all, lastly, in this way, what is more, this would mean that, such as, firstly, consequently, finally, as a result, however, to sum up, also, for example, moreover, since, all things considered.

Task 37.
a. Match the informal phrases/sentences (1 – 5) to the formal ones (a – e).
INFORMAL
1__ I like this idea a lot.
2__ I’m writing about…
3__ I don’t like what they’ve put forward at all.
4__ I don’t agree with the council’s plan.
5__ You can see that…
FORMAL
a) I am writing in connection with…
b) I am totally in favour of this idea.
c) I wish to express my disapproval of this proposal.
d) Obviously, …
e) I strongly disagree with the plan proposed by the town council.

b. Now read the short extracts and replace the underlined phrases with formal ones from above.
I am writing with regard to a letter in your magazine about the town council’s plan to build a new motorway in our area. I don’t like what they’ve put forward at all.
You can see that it is a disastrous plan. First of all, we would lose all greenery in the area.
I’m writing about the government’s plan to ban cars from the city centre. I like this idea a lot.

Task 38. Read the task, underline the key words and answer the questions.
Your class has had a discussion about the role of education in today’s world. Now your teacher has asked you to write a composition giving your opinion on the following statement:

Earning money is more important than getting a good education.
1. What type of writing is it?
2. Who is the target reader?
3. What style of writing is appropriate? Why?
4. Do you agree or disagree with the statement?
5. In pairs, write two topic sentences to present your opinion.
6. In pairs, think of appropriate supporting sentences for the topic sentences you have written.

Task 39. Read the two texts and say which one is appropriate.
Text 1
Many people today believe that getting a well-paid job is essential, while finishing school or university is not. I strongly disagree with this view for a number of reasons.
First of all, education is the key to development. Doctors, scientists and teachers use their education to advance society. Without them, there would be no cures for diseases and no progress in technology.
What is more, a good education can help to achieve economic success. Businesses would not be success. Business would not be successful without educated people to run them. Success and financial reward go hand in hand. As a result, highly trained people are often also better paid people.
Of course, there are people who argue that an education is not necessary in order to make lots of money. It is true that some highly paid jobs do not require a high level of education, but they are rare. What is more, a good education offers more rewards than just the ability to make money.
All in all, I believe that although money is important in life, it should not be given more emphasis than education. After all, with education comes knowledge and without this individuals and societies cannot advance.

Text 2
I don't agree with this opinion.
Earning money is important, that's true. I often work in this summer myself to make some extra money. Going to school is more important, through, I think. We can’t do without school diploma or university degree if we want to lead good lives. But you need lots of money too. Some people say that you can be rich without having a proper education. They believe that money opens doors for you and all you have to do is know the tricks. But you’d better not take them seriously. Besides, education ensures us that science progresses. It is essential for the development of a country in general.
In my opinion, nothing beats education. It is better to be clever and poor than rich and stupid.   

Task 40. Read the rubrics, underline the key words and answer the questions for each one.

A) The following statement was recently printed in a local newspaper.
English is the only foreign language worth learning.
Your teacher has now asked you to write a composition giving your opinion on this subject.
B) You recently read a newspaper article asking readers what the general public can do to help reduce the crime rate in your town. Write a letter to the editor of the newspaper, giving your opinion and making your suggestions.
C) You have seen this announcement in your college magazine.
“Continuing your education beyond high school is essential if you want to get a good job.”
What do you think?
Write us an article giving your opinion and explaining why you agree or disagree with the comment. The best articles will be printed in the next edition of the magazine.

Task 41. Write your article for the magazine.
Portfolio: Using the information you have learned in this unit, and your answers to these questions above write any of the tasks above. You should write between 120 and 180 words.

Task 42. Write your composition in 120-180 words.
You have had a class discussion on the following statement:
Apart from basic arithmetic, a lot of what is taught in Maths is a waste of time.
Now your teacher has asked you to write a composition giving your opinion on this statement.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING I

TO SIR, WITH LOVE
by E.R. Braithwaite
The Guianan diplomatist Eustace Braithwaite was born in 1912 in British Gui­ana. He flew with the R.A.F. during the war years. After the war colour prejudice precluded him from obtaining the kind of job for which his scientific qualifications fitted him. From 1950 to 1957 he worked as a school-teacher. In the sixties he was a Permanent Representative of Guiana to the UN. In 1959 Braithwaite won the Ainsfield Wolf Literary Award for To Sir, with Love, a book about his experiences as a teacher in a school in London's East End. The other books that came from his pen are A Kind of Homecoming (1961), Paid Servant (1962), A Choice of Straws (1965), Reluctant Neighbours (1972).
(Extract)
Each Friday morning the whole school spent the pre-recess period in writing their Weekly Review. This was one of the old Man's pet schemes: and one about which he would brook no interference. Each child would review the events of his school week in his own words, in his own way; he was free to comment, to criticise, to agree or disagree, with any person, subject or method, as long as it was in some way associated with the school. No one and nothing was sacred, from the Headmaster down, and the child, moreover, was safe from any form of reprisal.
"Look at it this way," Mr. Florian said. "It is of advantage to both pupils and teacher. If a child wants to write about something which matters to him, he will take some pains to set it down as carefully and with as much detail as possible; that must in some way improve his written English in terms of spelling, construction and style. Week by week we are able, through his review, to follow and observe his progress in such things. As for the teachers, we soon get a pretty good idea what the children think of us and whether or not we are getting close to them... You will discover that these children are reasonably fair, even when they comment on us. If we are careless about our clothing, manners or person they will soon notice it, and it would be pointless to be angry with them for pointing such things out. Finally, from the reviews, the sensible teacher will observe the trend of individual and collective interests and plan his work accordingly.’’
On the first Friday of my association with the class I was anxious to discover what sort of figure I cut in front of them, and what kind of comment they would make about me. I read through some of the reviews at lunch-time, and must admit to a mixture of relief and dis­appointment at discovering that, apart from mentioning that they had a new "blackie" teacher, very little attention was given to me ...
It occurred to me that they probably imagined I would be as transient as my many predecessors, and therefore saw no point in wasting either time or effort in writing about me. But if I had made so little impression on them, it must be my own fault, I decided. It was up to me to find some way to get through to them.
Thereafter I tried very hard to be a successful teacher with my class, but somehow, as day followed day in painful procession, I realized that I was not making the grade. I bought and read books on the psychology of teaching in an effort to discover some way of providing the children with the sort of intellectual challenge to which they would respond, but the suggested methods somehow did not meet my particular need, and just did not work. It was as if I were trying to reach the children through a thick pane of glass, so remote and uninterested they seemed.
 Looking back, I realize that in fact I passed through three phases in my relationship with them. The first was the silent treatment, and during that time, for my first few weeks, they would do any task I set them without question or protest, but equally without interest or enthusiasm; and if their interest was not required for the task in front of them would sit and stare at me with the same careful patient attention a birdwatcher devotes to the rare feathered visitor...
I took great pains with the planning of my lessons, using illus­trations from the familiar things of their own background... I creat­ed various problems within the domestic framework, and tried to encourage their participation, but it was as though there were a conspiracy of indifference, and my attempts at informality fell pitifully flat.
Gradually they moved on to the second and more annoying phase of their campaign, the "noisy" treatment. It is true to say that all of them did not actively join in this but those who did not were obviously in some sympathy with those who did. During a lesson, especially one in which it was necessary for me to read or speak to them, someone would lift the lid of a desk and then let it fall with a loud bang; the culprit would merely sit and look at me with wide innocent eyes as if it were an accident.
They knew as well as I did that there was nothing I could about it, and I bore it with as much show of aplomb as I could manage. One or two such interruptions during a lesson were usually enough to destroy its planned continuity... So I felt angry and frustrated when they rudely interrupted that which was being done purely for their own benefit.
One morning I was reading to them some simple poetry. Just when I thought I had inveigled them into active interest one of the girls, Monica Page, let the top of the desk fall; the noise seemed to reverberate in every part of my being and I felt a sudden burning anger. I looked at her for some moments before daring to open my mouth; she returned my gaze, then casually remarked to the class at large: "The bleeding thing won't stay up." It was all rather de­liberate, the noisy interruption and the crude remark, and it heralded the third stage of their conduct. From then on the words "bloody" or "bleeding" were hardly ever absent from any remark they made to one another especially in the classroom. They would call out to each other on any silly pretext and refer to the "bleeding" this or that, and always in a voice loud enough for my ears. One day during an arithmetic period I played right into their hands. I was so overcome by anger and disgust that I completely lost my temper
I went upstairs and sat in the library, the only place where I could be alone for a little while. I felt sick at heart, because it seemed that this latest act above all others, was intended to display their utter disrespect for me. They seemed to have no sense of decency, these children; everything they said or did was coloured by an ugly viciousness, as if their minds were forever rooting after filth. ‘Why, oh why,’ I asked myself, ‘did they behave like that? What was wrong with them?’


SUPPLEMENTARY READING II
CRITICAL ISSUES FACING EDUCATION
by Peter DeWitt
Critical issues are those issues that are important to education. They are the barriers that get in the way, or the important elements that we need to focus on in order to move forward and offer better opportunities to our students.
Common Core State Standards – 46 states may have adopted the standards but around a dozen states are backing out or considering backing out of using them. Regardless of how people feel about the Common Core they have led to many hot debates about education, and will continue to do so in 2014.
Student Learning – Student learning is everything from different pathways to graduation, encouraging student voice in student learning, and encouraging them have a place at the table for larger conversations about their education (Lisa Nielsen's Innovative Educator blog that focuses on student voice). So often we focus on teaching, but it's learning that matters most.
Technology – Even after all of these years technology is still a hot button issues. Some people love it and use it flawlessly every day, while others hate it and don't see why they need to be forced to use it at all. In addition what makes it complicated is that some schools seem to have endless resources, while other schools have to use what wealthier schools disregarded as old. Whether its MOOC's, iPads, gaming or BYOD, technology will still be a critical issue to discuss in 2014.
Social Media – Twitter has exploded over the past few years. More and more educators are joining and finding members to their Professional Learning Network (PLN). What's even better is that they are sharing resources to use in their classrooms, buildings and districts, and they are also using it to connect for professional development (i.e. Twitter chats, Ed Camps, etc.). Social media will be, and should be, part of a huge discussion in 2014.
Politics – Politicians have long mentioned education in their speeches but the past two years it seemed to have happened more than ever. Many politicians seem to focus on how schools are failing, and their only solution is standardization, accountability and high stakes testing. Many governors, like Andrew Cuomo, are running for re-election this year and education will no doubt make or break their campaigns. How many politicians, like Cuomo and Christie, have spoken about teachers is deplorable and this is the year when teachers continue to take control over that conversation.
High Stakes Testing – Not sure if you have heard of this before but schools across the country have to give high stakes tests to students. Some start it in kindergarten, while others begin in 3rd grade. In most states they are tied to teacher/administrator evaluation and that will no doubt continue to be a big debate this year. There need to be different methods used to assess student learning, and none of it should be "high stakes."
School Leadership – If you go on Twitter, you will find hundreds of school leaders who consider themselves "Lead Learners." This is very important because they see the important part they play in the lives of their students, teachers and staff. In addition, school leaders understand that they can have a positive or negative impact on their school climate, and too many still have a negative impact.
Pre-service Teaching Programs - How can we get the best teachers into our classrooms when so many politicians and policymakers cry that schools are failing? Under those circumstances, who would want to go into the profession? Additionally, pre-service programs need to improve because many of the graduates do not seem prepared for the profession. The real question for 2014 is how can K-12 schools work with these programs to build a community of learners who are prepared for the profession? A little less accountability tied to testing would go a long way to improve this issue.
School Climate – A few days ago Secretary Duncan and Attorney General Eric Holder announced new guidelines to stop the school to prison pipeline and improve school climate. This critical issue is not just about bullying, but about creating an inclusive school climate where all students can achieve their maximum potential.
Poverty – We know around 22% of our students are living in poverty. We also know that many children who live in poverty come to kindergarten hearing 1/8th of the language (vocabulary) that their wealthier peers experienced. Many of the schools that try to educate these students lack the proper resources, and the communities where children in poverty live often lack the same resources that wealthier towns have. Poverty is an issue that is one of the most critical issues of our time, in and out of schools.
In the End
We have many critical issues facing education this year, and the larger question should be...How are we going to work together to solve them? I stopped with ten but probably could have gone on with a few more. What would you add to the list?




















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