a. Look at the pictures. Name the type of holiday in each picture. Which of the types appeals to you most and why?
b. Scan the following text to find out reasons for backpacking holiday.
Why Tourists Backpack
Over the years backpacking tourism has become increasingly popular among travelers or tourists of all ages. “Budget travel” or “independent travelers” are alternative phrases used to describe backpacking tourism. There are two fundamental reasons for travelers choosing backpacking tourism – lack of funds, and lack of means to travel via conventional methods. Many people began backpacking because struggling travelers had difficulty finding accommodations they could afford. Backpacking traveling is most common among 18 to 35-year-olds.
Top 5 Reasons Why Tourists Backpack:
1) It Is Cheap
Backpackers usually spend a night or two in local motels or hostels for a reasonable price, whereas most other travelers usually stay in luxury resorts or hotels. Backpackers can also camp for very cheap, and in some cases, free of charge for a few nights or so.
2) Backpackers Can be Flexible with Itineraries and Plans
As backpackers do not have any pending reservations or itineraries, they can make the most out of the adventures and attractions with their flexible time. They can move freely at their own pace as they do not have to worry about meeting someone else’s schedule.
3) Personable Travel
Backpacking allows travelers to interact more freely and spend personal time with the locals. Conventional travelers do not get this opportunity. Backpackers can absorb the local culture and language of the region they are traveling to far better than the average traveler does. This provides the backpacker’s with an invaluable experience that they would not get opting out for conventional modes of traveling.
4) It Is Challenging
Backpackers are adventurous and love challenges. Backpacking pushes them to stay focused on their goals, adapt to their surroundings, and make changes to their circumstances. It drives them to set their mind to the goals they want to accomplish. Backpacking keeps their mind active and clear, as well as keeping their wits sharp and focused.
5) It Provides Amazing Experiences
Backpacking provides a wealth of experience, and a lifetime of memories. It also provides information that remains useful for a lifetime. As backpackers travel, they learn and absorb at their own pace. They would not be able to explore the adventures off the beaten path with the help of a tour guide. The experiences and knowledge they acquire help them to give practical tips and advice to others on travel and many different aspects of tourism.
In essence, backpacking tourism is a budget-friendly way to travel around the world while seeking fun with flexible schedules and plans. More people are taking up backpacking tourism to seek out life experiences and to travel to varied locations while managing their travel finances prudently. Backpacking is trendy in some regions of the world, and quite fashionable way of traveling across any country.
Task 2. Paraphrase the following statements. Do you agree or disagree? Why (not)?
When we travel we learn about ourselves as well as the places we visit.
Home is where the heart is.
Ω Task 3. Match the speakers to the holidays.
Task 4. Match the words to form compound nouns.
Eco-tourism is becoming more and more popular, and it’s easy to see why. Deprived areas make the most of their natural attractions, the environment benefits and travelers feel they are ‘giving something back’ to the places they visit. Perhaps the age of responsible tourism has arrived at last. Let’s look at four very different eco-tourism projects from around the globe.
A. Sinking a Warship
A group in England is planning to sink a retired warship in order to use it as an artificial diving reef. They plan to sink the ship off the Cornish coast and hope the project will generate ten million pounds a year for the local economy by attracting diving enthusiasts.
It is believed that the reef encourage eco-tourism through diving, as well as help protect fish stocks and marine life in general. The sunken ship would attract divers from across Europe and there will be facilities for able-bodied and disabled divers.
The group is appealing to similar organisations in the hope that they will help them, not only financially but also by sharing their knowledge on such projects.
The scheme would be the first for Britain. Other countries including America and Australia already have artificial reefs created from redundant ships, and the response from diving enthusiasts has so far proved amazing.
B. Moving Up-market
Goa’s Anjuna beach is a place which symbolizes the carefree hippie lifestyle. It is a place where low budget tourists go when they have run out of money. At the weekly market, travellers try to sell their cameras, cassettes, guitars and even their clothes. However, it may soon all be over because the local authorities have announced that they want to discourage tourists who visit the area on shoestring budgets.
Local residents do not entirely agree. Although they would like to see better-off tourists in Goa, they do not think it wise to turn away the budget travellers. Tourist organisations want to concentrate on eco-tourism and plan to organise jungle safari because they believe such projects will attract up-market travellers. Both the residents and the travel organisations feel that it is not sensible to snub the tourists they already have in an attempt to attract wealthier visitors.
C. Inca Cable Car
The Inca people built Machu Picchu high up in the mountains because the area was so remote. Now these pristine mountains will be changes forever by Swiss engineering. A Swiss company plans to build a cable car to lift visitors 500m up into the mountains. This means that travelers will no longer have to trek for days along the Inca Trail to sample the magic of Machu Picchu.
Opponents to the scheme argue that the cable car will be visible from the site’s famous Sun Temple. There is also a wider concern that big business tourism will benefit from the scheme, while local inhabitants who earn little money from tourism will not.
UNESCO would like to see the development of ecotourism rather than mass tourism in the area.
The Peruvian government on the other hand support the cable car scheme, saying that it will allow it to go ahead, and it will see that the character of Machu Picchu is preserved.
D. African Village Experience
An eco-tourism project with a difference has just been launched in the South Luangwa National Park in Zambia. Tourists will be offered the chance to encounter a wide range of wildlife and a great deal more. This project was set up by the local villagers who were suffering from a downturn in the national economy. They decided to raise money themselves to cover the cost of educational and welfare projects.
Tourists will be invited to live the African Village Experience. The tours are led by English speaking villagers, and visitors can choose from activities such as meeting the local healer to taking part in cooking or farming. Visitors are also offered the option of staying the night in the village. What’s more, they are encouraged to join in all the local traditions, such as using the left hand to eat with and eating in separate dining areas for males and females.
1. eco-tourism/responsible/sustainable tourism
2. deprived areas
3. the age of responsible tourism
4. from around the globe
5. retire; retired
7. marine life
8. share the knowledge
10. appeal to
12. carefree hippie lifestyle
13. low budget tourists
14. run out of smth.
15. local authorities
16. discourage smb.
17. shoestring budgets
18. local residents
a local healer
19. better-off tourists
20. turn away smb.
21. up-market travellers
22. snub smb.
23. remote area
24. pristine mountains
25. a cable car
26. trek for days
27. launch a project / set up a project
29. downturn in the national economy
30. raise money
31. to cover the cost of smth.
a. Find words/phrases in the text.
not natural, to produce, to put off, to insult or ignore, untouched/clean, services provide to help with living conditions and financial problems.
b. Give opposites.
sink (a ship), attract, protect, law-budget (tourists), preserve (character), sensible, retired.
c. Translate into English.
искусственный риф, устойчивый туризм, морская жизнь, по всему миру, районы без следов цивилизации, делиться знаниями, призывать, беззаботная жизнь, бедные туристы, оказаться без чего-либо, местные жители/власти, отвадить, богатые/зажиточные туристы, отдаленные районы, чистые горы, упадок местной экономики, покрыть расходы, заработать деньги, встретиться, забота, местный знахарь, запустить проект, игнорировать кого-либо.
Task 6. Paraphrase the sentences using words and word combinations given in the Glossary.
1) It is not sensible to ignore poorer tourists. 2) This dress is made of man-made silk. 3) These untouched mountains will be changed after building a cable car. 4) Rich travelers prefer to live in luxury hotels. 5) Local people do not earn money from mass tourism. 6) The travelers had to walk for several days before they reached Machu Picchu. 7) Goa is visited by tourists on law budgets. 8) Far-off areas are popular among extreme tourists. 9) Local residents try to help pay for educational project. 10) Some tourists when left without money go to Anjuna’s flee market to sell some of their belongings.
Task 7. Translate the following sentences into English.
1) Искусственные рифы не только развивают эко-туризм, но и способствуют защите морских обитателей. 2) Местные власти в Гоа хотят отвадить туристов, которые приезжают с целью поправить свой бюджет. 3) Неразумно игнорировать небогатых туристов в попытке привлечь богатых людей. Это может привести к упадку местной экономики. 4) Некоторые молодые люди специально путешествуют в отдаленных районах в поисках острых ощущений. Большой популярностью пользуются горные районы, куда можно добраться только по канатной дороге. 5) В регионах, где развит массовый туристический бизнес, у местных жителей мало шансов заработать на путешественниках. 6) Неудивительно, что таинственные руины Мачу Пикчу невероятно привлекательны для любителей всего загадочного. С горного плато, на котором расположен прекрасный город-призрак, открываются потрясающие виды на дивные заснеженные вершины и своенравную горную речку Урубаму. 7) Дорога из Мачу-Пикчу в Куско – прекрасный образец искусства инкских строителей. Даже в сезон дождей дорога в прекрасном состоянии. 8) В рамках презентации обсуждались вопросы этического кодекса международного туризма и проблемы ответственности в туризме. Также затрагивались актуальные вопросы экологии и оптимального использования природных ресурсов.
Task 8. Answer the following questions on the text:
1) What are the benefits of eco-tourism for local people/travelers?
1) In what way an artificial reef will help protect marine life?
2) In what way tourists may earn money in Goa’ Anjuna?
3) What are the pros and contras of building a cable car in Machu Picchu?
4) What were the reasons of launching an eco-tourism project “African Village Experience” in Zambia?
1) Do you think the projects will successful? Why/Why not?
2) How can tourists behave responsibly in the places they visit?
3) Why does the writer describe the holidays as “guilt-free”?
Task 9. Text analysis
1. What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
2. Summarize each part (A – D) of the text. Mind the rules of summary writing.
Task 10. Watch video clips “Benefits of eco-tourism” and “Eco-tourism”. Compare them with the video “Eco-tourism is bad for ecosystems”. In pairs, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of eco-tourism.
Task 11. Make up a power-point presentation on one of the following topics.
1) Famous responsible tourism projects.
2) Types of holidays.
3) Extreme tourism.
a. Put the verbs in bold into the correct boxes according to the stage of a journey they are associated with.
We were held up in a traffic jam. There was no direct train so we had to go via Birmingham. We stopped to have a picnic en-route. I'll be at the station to see you off. We'll have to get going if we want to reach Bristol by 6pm. We passed through some lovely countryside on the way. We boarded the train in Paris and got off in London. We set off very early in the morning and headed for Rome.
b. Use the verbs to complete the captain's log. Can you put a date on it?
Set sail from Southampton this morning on our maiden voyage. Huge crowds were there to 1) ______. We will stop at Cherburg, France 2) ______. Hope to 3) _____ New York next week.
c. Paraphrase the sentences using the phrasal verb in brackets in the correct form.
1) We were delayed at the airport so we missed our flight connection. (hold up) 2) I took her to the bus station first and I did my shopping. (see off) 3) We decided to leave bright and early to avoid the rush hour traffic. (set off) 4) The hikers made their way to the nearest village, as it was getting dark. (head for) 5) As the plane left the ground I suddenly felt afraid. (take off) 6) The van driver reduced his speed as he reached the town centre. (slow down).
Task 13. Imagine that you and your partner are going to Mexico and you have to share a suitcase. There is only enough room for ﬁve items from those in the pictures. In pairs, decide which ﬁve you will
need to pack.
Ω Task 14. Read the announcements and underline the correct word. Listen and check. Where might you hear them?
1. All passengers/customers for flight KLM 726 to Amsterdam please proceed to Gate 8.
2. The train standing at platform/station 2 is the 13.17 service to London Euston.
3. Passengers are reminded to keep their handbag/luggage with them at all times.
4. We will be docking/landing at Calais in 30 minutes.
5. Avoid the M25 and use an alternative road/route or you could face very long delays.
a. Choose a word to complete each sentence (1 – 5). Make sentences of your own.
ROADS: dual carriageway, ring road, lane, bypass, motorway, flyover, track;
TRAVELLERS: sightseer, rambler, pilgrim, backpacker, globetrotter, explorer;
TRIPS: weekend break, day trip, flight, excursion, cruise, stopover, flying visit, extended stay;
1) John seems to have visited every country on earth. He is a real _____.
2) We couldn’t stay long because we both had jobs to get back to. It was just a ______.
3) _______ make journeys for religious reasons.
4) We couldn’t get a direct flight back home. We had a ______ in Rome and changed planes.
5) ______ travel to places about which little is known to make new discoveries.
b. Match the words in the list to complete the phrases.
charter, island, agency, brochure, departure, village, area, cheques, carriage, resort, holiday, car.
travel _____, package _____, traveller’s _____, _____flight, first-class ____, _____ lounge, _____ ferry, remote _____, tropical _____, seaside _____, mountain _____.
c. Cross out the word that doesn’t fit.
1. calm, rough, open, heavy sea
2. seaside, luxurious, accommodation, family hotel
3. local, national, friendly, interesting people
4. soaking, crystal-clear, flowing, fresh water
5. relaxing, package, booked, adventure holiday
6. spectacular, various, breathtaking, beautiful scenery
Task 16. Underline the correct word.
1. I lost my nerve/heart in Russia. It’s the most beautiful country I’ve ever visited.
2. I think travel broadens/expands the mind.
3. Come on, we’ll be late if we don’t hit/bit the road now.
4. We made/did our way through the old part of town, up to the castle.
5. On the second day of our trip we went to see the ruins/remnants of the ancient city.
6. The sight/view from our hotel window was absolutely breathtaking.
7. There was a two-hour postponement/delay to our flight, so we missed our appointment.
8. We went on a two-day travel/trip to Moscow.
9. My travelling partner/companion and I thoroughly enjoyed the journey to the coast.
10. Would you like to see the travel leaflets/brochures I brought home with me?
Task 17. Phrasal verbs. Fill in the correct particle.
1. Can you slow _______? You are exceeding the speed limit.
2. John will pick you _____ at the station.
3. Call the hotel and tell them we will check _____ tomorrow before noon.
4. They set _____ for Bristol early in the morning.
5. The plane took _____ at 3 pm and landed in Mexico at 9.30 am.
6. Their car broke _____ on the way to Madrid.
Task 18. Fill in prepositions/
1. ____ bas/car/plane/rail; 2. ____ foot; 3. ____ the road; 4. head ____ somewhere; 5. _____ coast; 6. _____ the beaten track; 7. ____ the move; 8. ____ the heart of; 9. arrive _____ a city; 10. _____ a rush.
Task 19. Word formation/
a. In pairs, write the abstract noun, concrete noun, adjective and adverb from the following verbs. Make up sentences of your own.
admire, complete, correct, enthuse, exhaust, expend, organise, guide, invite, produce, quality, repeat
b. Fill in the correct word derived from the word in bold.
1. There were no _____ at the hotel so
he had to sleep in the car. VACANT
2. I didn’t spend much money on souvenirs;
these ones were quite _____ EXPEND
3. The beds in the hotel were ______
but the rooms were tiny. COMFORT
4. On their ______ at the resort they
were met but a guide. ARRIVE
5. The hotel and its grounds covered
an _____ area. EXTEND
6. Paella is a ______ of this Spanish
7. The airport _____ lounge was full
excited tourists. DEPART
8. We were given a wonderful _____
of continental food. CHOOSE
a. Which of these opinions about travel do you agree or disagree with? Give reasons.
1. The best time to travel is all the holiday crowds have gone home.
2. It’s better to travel independently than to go on a package holiday where everything is arranged for you.
3. It’s better for young children to have holidays close to home.
Ω b. You will hear five people giving their opinions about travelling. Listen and match the speakers (1-5) to what they say (A-F). There is one extra sentence you do not need.
Speaker 2 _____
Speaker 4 _____
Speaker 5 _____
A. have some clothes in your flight bag.
B. travel abroad later in the year
C. travel companies are less hopeful than they should be
D. organise your holiday yourself
E. have a summer holiday in England
F. a competition for a holiday is a good idea
a. You will hear a person giving advice on how to plan a successful holiday. Before you listen, read the sentences 1 – 8 and underline the key words. What do you need to listen for?
Ω b. Now listen, and decide if the statements (1 – 8) are true (T) or (F).
1. Toiletry manufactures make special lightweight
travel products _______
2. Inexpensive suitcases attract thieves _______
3. Eating sweets is dangerous for children
during take-off and landing _______
4. Limit the number of toys your child takes abroad _______
5. Taking addressed envelopes reminds
you to contact all your friend _______
6. Shop for things which will actually fit in
your suitcase _______
7. At the airport, you may be asked about certain
items in your luggage _______
8. Taking care of small details is important _______
c. Do you agree with this advice? Discuss in pairs.
Task 22. Look at these souvenirs that are sold in different countries. Which two souvenirs would you buy and not buy?
a. Discuss the following questions.
1. Which souvenirs are popular in your country? Which would you suggest tourists should buy and why?
2. Why is it important for someone to take holidays?
3. Where do you prefer spending your holidays: in your country or abroad? Why?
Ω b. Listen to two candidates doing the above speaking tasks and assess them in terms of: grammar and vocabulary, discourse management, pronunciation, interactive communication.
Tahiti is a South Pacific island famous for its unique history, friendly people and breathtaking beauty. People go to this part of the world for the beaches and the relaxed pace of life. The island is rich in marine and bird life and is covered with lush forest. The best time to visit is between May and November, as this is the dry season.
THE MOON AND SIXPENCE
W. Somerset Maugham
I have said already that but for the hazard of a journey to Tahiti I should doubtless never have written this book. It is there that after many travels Charles Strickland came, and it is there that he painted the pictures on which his fame rests. I suppose no artist achieves completely the realization of the dream that obsesses him, and Strickland, harassed incessantly by his struggle with technique, managed, perhaps, less than others to express the vision that he saw with his mind’s eye; but in Tahiti the circumstances were favourable to him; he found in his surroundings the accidents necessary for his inspiration to become effective, and his later pictures give at least a suggestion of what he sought. To use the hackneyed phrase, here he found himself.
It would seem that my visit to this remote island should immediately revive my interest in Strickland, but the work I was engaged in occupied my attention to the exclusion of something that was irrelevant, and it was not till I had been there some days that I even remembered his connection with it. After all, I had not seen him for fifteen years, and it was nine since he died. But I think my arrival at Tahiti would have driven out of my head matters of much more immediate importance.
I remember that on my first morning I awoke early, and when I came on to the terrace of the hotel no one was stirring. 1.______ There seemed no chance of breakfast for some time, so I walked down to the waterfront. The Chinamen were already busy in their shops. The sky had still the pallor of dawn, and there was a ghostly silence on the lagoon.
I did not altogether believe my eyes. The days that had passed since I left Wellington seemed extraordinary and unusual. 2. ______ And for three days afterwards the sea was stormy. Gray clouds chased one another across the sky. 3. ______ The Pacific is more desolate than other seas; its spaces seem more vast, and the most ordinary journey upon it has somehow the feeling of an adventure. The air you breathe is an elixir which prepares you for the unexpected.
Murea, the sister isle, comes into view in rocky splendour, rising from the desert sea mysteriously, like the unsubstantial fabric of a magic wand. 4. ______ It would not surprise you if, as you came near seeking for an opening in the reef, it vanished suddenly from your view, and nothing met your gaze but the blue loneliness of the Pacific.
Tahiti is a lofty green island, with deep folds of a darker green, in which you divine silent valleys. There is mystery in their sombre depths, down which murmur and splash cool streams, and you feel that in those shadowy places life has not changed for centuries. 5. ______ But the impression is fleeting, and serves only to give a greater acuteness to the enjoyment of the moment. For Tahiti is smiling and friendly; it is like a lovely woman graciously prodigal of her charm and beauty; and nothing can be more conciliatory than the entrance into the harbour at Papeete.
6. ______, the little town along the bay is white and charming, and the flamboyants, scarlet against the blue sky, flaunt their colour like a cry of passion. And the crowd at the wharf as the steamer draws alongside is gay andwell-dressed. 7. ______ It is a sea of brown faces. You have an impression of coloured movement against the flaming blue of the sky. Everything is done with a great deal of bustle, the unloading of the baggage, the examination of the customs; and everyone seems to smile at you. It is very hot. The colour dazzles you.
Task 24. Read the text and choose from the list A – H the sentence which fits each gap (1 – 7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A) I wandered round to the kitchen, but it was locked, and on a bench outside it a native boy was sleeping.
B) The beauty of the island is unveiled as diminishing distance shows you in distincter shape its lovely peaks, but it keeps its secret as you sail by.
C) Wellington is trim and neat and English; it reminds you of a seaport town on the South Coast.
D) It is a noisy, cheerful, gesticulating crowd.
E) Even here is something sad and terrible.
F) The schooners moored to the quay are trim and neat
G) Then the wind dropped, and the sea was calm and blue.
H) You may imagine it was guarded by Polynesian knights.
1. hazard of a journey
2. favourable circumstances
3. to rest fame
4. effective inspiration
5. hackneyed phrase
7. drive out of one’s head
8. to wander round
9. become distinct
10. trim and neat
11. remote / desolate island
12. revive one’s interest
13. occupy one’s attention
14. to be engaged in smth.
15. of immediate importance
18. chase one another
20. drop (the wind ~)
21. to vanish from view
22. to meet one’s gaze
23. lofty island
24. fleeting (syn. short-lived) feeling
25. enjoyment of the moment
27. flamboyant trees
28. unloading of the baggage
29. examination of customs
30. dazzle; dazzling colour
a. In pairs, find adjectives the writer uses to describe the words in the list.
the islands, the sky, Wellington, the sea, the clouds, the mountains, the boats, the town, the people
b. What is meant by the following?
1) favourable circumstances
2) to revive my interest
3) to occupy my attention
4) the wind dropped
5) to meet your gaze
6)an animated crowd
7) a sea of brown faces
Task 26. Translate into Russian.
представившийся случай, азарт путешествия, создать славу, избивая фраза, бродить, несоответствующий, неординарный, прекратиться (о ветер), брасающиеся в глаза деревья, великолепие, морской фасад, ослепительный блеск, примирительный, занять чье-то внимание, отдаляться, аккуратный, гоняться один за другим, поймать взгляд, исчезнуть из виду, пробудить интерес.
Task 27. Paraphrase the sentences using Glossary
1) I tried to catch her eye, but he refused to look directle at me. 2) It is surprising that no one disagreed with her. 3) My sister walked aound the countryside looking at her son playing with the dog. 4) As children, we were made to feel strong admiration by my uncle’s good looks and charm. 5) For one minute, Paula allowed herself to forget her toubles. 6) Sometimes we forget that the media coverage of a sport is actually important to the event itself. 7) The hotel is down on the place next to the sea. 8) You might be able to get them to reduce the price. 9) Students viewed Latin as boring and unimportant. 10) By the 1930s, the wolf had stopped existing in the American West.
Task 28. Translate the following Russian sentences into English using as many words and expressions from Glossary as you can.
1) Если бы не представившийся случай посетить Англию, он бы никогда не познакомился с Дэвидом Кристаллом, выдающимся английским лингвистом. 2) После путешествия в Таити С. Моэм написал роман «Луна и грош», который принес ему славу. 3) Картины Гогена, написанные в ярких, ослепительных тонах, пробудили в нем интерес к живописи. 4) Обстоятельства благоприятствовали и путешественники без препятствий дошли до вершины. Более того, по пути они смогли насладиться прекрасным видом на горное озеро. 5) Таити – высокий зеленый остров с зелеными глубокими долинами, в которых журчат и плещутся прохладные реки. Жизнь на Таити не меняется веками. 6) Пароход на пристани встречает веселая, жизнерадостная толпа. 7) На пристани долго ждать не пришлось. Разгрузка багажа, таможенный досмотр – все проводилось очень быстро. 8) Соседний остров Муреа таинственно возвышается среди океана. Его красота раскрывается по мере приближения, когда прекрасные вершины становятся отчетливо видны. 9) По прибытии на остров, Моэм весь ушел в работу, поэтому не вспомнил о Чарльзе Стрикленде. Кроме того, впечатления от Таити вытеснили из его головы даже очень важные дела. 10) Таити называют тропическим раем из-за богатой растительной и подводной жизни. Остров покрыт густым лесом, а видовое разнообразие птиц одно из самых богатых в Полинезии.
Task 29. Discuss the following
1. Describe what your dream island would look like.
2. Do you like travelling by sea? Why (not)?
3. What kind of life style do islanders have when the tourists have left? Describe the advantages and disadvantages of living on an island.
Task 30. Watch the video “Tahiti travel (Part 01)” and discuss it with your groupmates.
Narratives are written either in the first person(I/we) or in the third person (he/she/they). They may be accounts of real events that happened to us or somebody else, or imaginary stories. These can be humorous stories, spy stories, detective stories, fairy tales, etc. Before we start writing the story, we should decide on the plot line – that is, the events which make up the story.
A narrative should consist of:
· an introduction in whish the scene is set – that is, when and where the story took place, who the people in the story were and what happened first.
· a main body of two or more paragraphs where the story is developed describing the events , usually in chronological order. One of the events should be the climax events – that is, the event where interest, suspense and feelings reach their peak.
· a conclusion which includes what happened at the end of the story, as well as people’s feelings , final comments or reactions. A twist – that is, a surprising ending – makes a long-lasting impression on the reader.
A narrative may also have a catchy title in order to attract the reader’s attention, especially if it is for a magazine, newspaper, etc.
a. Read the information above and underline the key words. Then, answer the questions.
You local newspaper is holding a short story competition and you have decided to enter. Your story should start with “The day of my holiday arrived, but I wasn’t looking forward to it.” Write your story for the competition in 120 – 180 words.
1) Who is going to read your story?
2) Who should the story be about?
a. your best friend b. yourself
3) What should your story be about?
· a trip you didn’t feel excited about at first
· your ideal holiday
· a trip you had been dreaming of, which turned out to be disappointing.
b. Read the story and put the paragraphs in the correct order. Then, answer the questions that follow.
A _____ After I had checked in, I made my way slowly to the departure gate. As I was waiting to board the plane, I kept thinking about my ideal holiday destination: Jamaica, with its long, sandy beaches and crystal clear waters.
B _____ So there I was, lying on the beach, enjoying the music and sampling the marvelous food of Jamaica! As for Aunt Rosa, I suppose she just had to live without me!
C _____ The day of my holiday arrived, but I wasn’t looking forward to it. I had little money and had only been able to afford to stay with my Aunt Rosa in Spain. So, I wasn’t really thrilled as I knew exactly what it was going to be like: lots of noisy cousins, and Aunt Rosa begging me to take her for a ride.
D _____As soon as the plane took off, I fell fast asleep and only woke to the sound of the announcement:”Ladies and gentlemen, please fasten your seatbelts, as we will shortly be landing in Kingston.” I froze in my seat. Was I dreaming? Kingston? Jamaica? I had boarded the wrong plane!
E _____Immediately after the plane had landed, I explained the situation to the authorities. It seems there were also three other passengers heading for Spain. Apparently, it had been the airline’s fault, since the flight numbers for Spain and Jamaica were exactly the same! Therefore, with no light back to London for a week, the airline had no choice but to pay for our stay!
1) Which tenses have been used? What does each verb describe (actions, events, feelings, etc)?
2) Underline the adjectives used and say decide which have a positive or a negative meaning.
3) Circle the adverbs used and decide which show manner, time or degree.
4) Which words show the sequence of events?
5) Which words/clauses describe the writer’s feelings/moods?
6) Which is the climax event? Underline it.
c. Put the events in chronological order.
1) I checked in and waited to board the plane.
2) I explained the problem to the audience.
3) I spent a week in Jamaica.
4) The airline agreed to pay for my stay in Jamaica.
5) The plane took off.
6) I wasn’t looking forward to going on holiday.
7) The pilot announced that we were landing in Kinston.
8) I fell asleep.
10) I realized I was on the wrong plane.
To show the sequence of events in a story we can use linking words such as:
When, while, as soon as, after, before, at that moment, by the time, first, next, soon, then, eventually, meanwhile, after a while, suddenly, at first, finally, as.
a. Read the extract below and underline the time words and phrases.
As soon as the taxi pulled up outside the hotel, we knew we had made a terrible mistake. When we had booked our holiday, the travel agent said that the hotel Mirage was a 4-star hotel in the center of town. This was an old rundown building and we were miles from anywhere!
While we were waiting to check in, we heard one of the guests complaining that there was no hot water in the bathroom and her room was crawling with cockroaches! At that moment we both decided that we would only spend one night there and first thing in the morning we would look for another place to stay.
b. Read the rest of the story and fill in appropriate time words and phrases from the box above.
1_____ it was our turn to check in but the hotel receptionist said she couldn’t find our reservation. 2 _____ we did not know what was wrong. 3 _____, she asked to check our confirmation details. “You’re in the wrong place,” she said eventually. “This is Le Mirage. Your hotel is called Mirage and it’s in the center of town.” She called a taxi for us and 25 minutes later we arrived at a beautiful, luxurious hotel.
4 _____ we had checked in and the porter had taked our luggage up to our suite overlooking the pool, we both breathed a sigh of relief. 5 _____ our holiday was about to begin.
c. Read the events in Task 31 c. and use appropriate time words and phrases from the box above to retell the story.
To make a narrative more interesting to the reader, we should relate the characters’ moods and feelings. We can do this by:
· using a variety of adjectives and adverbs such as wonderful, fascinating, depressed, etc instead of simplistic ones such as good, nice, bad.
· using a variety of verbs such as whisper, scream, sigh, exclaim etc.
Task 33. Read the two paragraphs below and compare them, saying which is more interesting to the reader and why.
A. The next morning we decided to go to the beach. It was a bright, warm, sunny day and even though it was early, there already. We found a lovely spot and spread out our towels on the warm, golden sand. The sea looked very inviting. It was a beautiful, clear, turquoise blue and it seemed to sparkle in the sunlight. We spent the whole morning sunbathing and swimming.
B. Julie in the café in the nice fishing village. She was watching people getting off the big cruise ship. Her nice face lit up and she smiled as she saw her nice 80-year-old grandmother walking towards her wearing a nice dress. She hugged Julie, sat down opposite her and gave a small sigh of joy. After the bad time she had had getting there, she felt very lucky to finally be on the island with her nice granddaughter.
An interesting beginning is important in order to catch the reader’s attention and make them want to continue reading. An interesting ending will make them feel satisfied.
We can start our story by:
· using the senses to set the scene and describe the weather, atmosphere, surroundings or people’s actions to create mystery and suspense.
e.g. A strong sensation came over me as I walked along the cold, dim corridor. Suddenly, a delicate glow appeared at the end of the corridor and my heart began pounding quickly.
We can start or end our story by:
· using direct speech: e.g. “Watch out! That branch is about to fall!” shouted Greg urgently.
· asking a rhetorical question (a question that doesn’t expect an answer)” e.g. Have you ever had the feeling that you were being watched?
· referring to feelings/moods” e.g. Vivian was so nervous that, just as she was about to deliver her speech, she froze and stared blankly at the audience.
· addressing the reader directly: e.g. I’m sure you would have done the same thing in my place.
We can end our story:
· describing people’s reactions to/feelings about the events developed in the main body: e.g. It had definitely been a horrifying experience and I was lucky to be able in the end.
Task 34. Match the beginnings of the stories to the endings and say which techniques have been used in each one.
1. It was an extremely hot August night and Paul was lying in bed. As he tossed and turned he could hear the strange sounds of the unfamiliar city in the distance. He got up, walked to the window and looked out. “What am I doing here?” he asked himself.
2. Have you ever had one of those days where no matter what you do everything seems to go wrong? Well, I had one of those days at last year.
3. Dark clouds were gathering outside and the wind was howling. As the hotel guests gathered in the lobby, their faces looking extremely worried, Andrew looked at his wife and said, “Don’t worry, darling. Everything will be alright.”
A. No matter how many times I go over that day in my mind, I am amazed at how the events just fell into place. But I suppose that’s life, isn’t it?
B. Stepping carefully over the broken pieces of glass, Andrew and his wife followed the others out of the hotel. They were all tired, hungry and still in shock, but they were very happy to be alive.
C. As the jeep rolled across the vast desert, Paul looked back at the walled city, now only a small dot on the horizon. With a deep sigh of relief he said, “I’m so glad it’s all over!”
Task 35. Look at the following writing tasks, underline the key words, and for each one, answer the questions that follow.
A. Your teacher has asked you to write a story ending with these words: “He was far, far away at last.”
B. A popular teen magazine has asked its readers to submit short stories about travelling and you have decided to send in a story. Your story must begin with these words: “We felt surprised as the train pulled into the empty station.”
C. Your school magazine is holding a short story competition and you have decided to enter. Your story must begin with these words: “I will never forget my first camping holiday.”
1. Do you have to write a first- or a third-person narrative?
2. Who is going to read the story?
3. Where and when will your story take place?
4. Who are the main characters in your story?
5. What are the main events in your story?
6. How can you end your story?
7. Can you think of a catchy title?
THREE MEN IN A BOAT
By Jerome K. Jerome
We got out at Sonning, and went for a walk round the village. It is the most fairy-like little nook on the whole river. It is more like a stage village than one built of bricks and mortar. Every house is smothered in roses, and now, in early June, they were bursting forth in clouds of dainty splendour. If you stop at Sonning, put up at the “Bull,” behind the church. It is a veritable picture of an old country inn, with green, square courtyard in front, where, on seats beneath the trees, the old men group of an evening to drink their ale and gossip over village politics; with low, quaint rooms and latticed windows, and awkward stairs and winding passages.
We roamed about sweet Sonning for an hour or so, and then, it being too late to push on past Reading, we decided to go back to one of the Shiplake islands, and put up there for the night. It was still early when we got settled, and George said that, as we had plenty of time, it would be a splendid opportunity to try a good, slap-up supper. He said he would show us what could be done up the river in the way of cooking, and suggested that, with the vegetables and the remains of the cold beef and general odds and ends, we should make an Irish stew.
It seemed a fascinating idea. George gathered wood and made a fire, and Harris and I started to peel the potatoes. I should never have thought that peeling potatoes was such an undertaking. The job turned out to be the biggest thing of its kind that I had ever been in. We began cheerfully, one might almost say skittishly, but our light-heartedness was gone by the time the first potato was finished. The more we peeled, the more peel there seemed to be left on; by the time we had got all the peel off and all the eyes out, there was no potato left – at least none worth speaking of. George came and had a look at it – it was about the size of a pea-nut. He said:
“Oh, that won’t do! You’re wasting them. You must scrape them.”
So we scraped them, and that was harder work than peeling. They are such an extraordinary shape, potatoes – all bumps and warts and hollows. We worked steadily for five-and-twenty minutes, and did four potatoes. Then we struck. We said we should require the rest of the evening for scraping ourselves.
I never saw such a thing as potato-scraping for making a fellow in a mess. It seemed difficult to believe that the potato-scrapings in which Harris and I stood, half smothered, could have come off four potatoes. It shows you what can be done with economy and care.
George said it was absurd to have only four potatoes in an Irish stew, so we washed half-a-dozen or so more, and put them in without peeling. We also put in a cabbage and about half a peck of peas. George stirred it all up, and then he said that there seemed to be a lot of room to spare, so we overhauled both the hampers, and picked out all the odds and ends and the remnants, and added them to the stew. There were half a pork pie and a bit of cold boiled bacon left, and we put them in. Then George found half a tin of potted salmon, and he emptied that into the pot.
He said that was the advantage of Irish stew: you got rid of such a lot of things. I fished out a couple of eggs that had got cracked, and put those in. George said they would thicken the gravy.
I forget the other ingredients, but I know nothing was wasted; and I remember that, towards the end, Montmorency, who had evinced great interest in the proceedings throughout, strolled away with an earnest and thoughtful air, reappearing, a few minutes afterwards, with a dead water-rat in his mouth, which he evidently wished to present as his contribution to the dinner; whether in a sarcastic spirit, or with a genuine desire to assist, I cannot say.
We had a discussion as to whether the rat should go in or not. Harris said that he thought it would be all right, mixed up with the other things, and that every little helped; but George stood up for precedent. He said he had never heard of water-rats in Irish stew, and he would rather be on the safe side, and not try experiments.
“If you never try a new thing, how can you tell what it’s like? It’s men such as you that hamper the world’s progress. Think of the man who first tried German sausage!”
It was a great success, that Irish stew. I don’t think I ever enjoyed a meal more. There was something so fresh and piquant about it. One’s palate gets so tired of the old hackneyed things: here was a dish with a new flavour, with a taste like nothing else on earth.
And it was nourishing, too. As George said, there was good stuff in it. The peas and potatoes might have been a bit softer, but we all had good teeth, so that did not matter much: and as for the gravy, it was a poem – a little too rich, perhaps, for a weak stomach, but nutritious.