MOODS AND FEELINGS
1. What are the ways of expressing emotions?
2. Are there emotions that have no facial expression? Name them. Do they have any other forms of expression?
3. Scan the following text to learn about the interdependence of feelings and their facial expressions.
Our mood affects our facial expressions,
but also vice versa
Often when we frown, it means that we’re sad or grumpy. But how much does the frown also exacerbate the bad mood? To study this, University of Wisconsin-Madison psychology PhD candidate David Havas tested individuals who had received Botox treatments to stop brow-wrinkling. The subjects were asked before and after Botox treatments to read statements that were angry, sad, or happy. The Botox seemed to slow down the time it took the subjects to read and understand the angry and sad statements but not the happy ones. This supports the theory that facial expressions do affect the brain's ability to process some emotions, a concept Mark looked at in 2008 in a guest essay on Good. From the University of Wisconsin-Madison:
"There is a long-standing idea in psychology called the facial feedback hypothesis," says Havas. "Essentially, it says, when you're smiling, the whole world smiles with you. It's an old song, but it's right. Actually, this study suggests the opposite: When you're not frowning, the world seems less angry and less sad."
The Havas study broke new ground by linking the expression of emotion to the ability to understand language, says Havas' adviser, UW-Madison professor emeritus of psychology Arthur Glenberg. "Normally, the brain would be sending signals to the periphery to frown, and the extent of the frown would be sent back to the brain. But here, that loop is disrupted, and the intensity of the emotion and of our ability to understand it when embodied in language is disrupted."
Practically, the study "may have profound implications for the cosmetic-surgery," says Glenberg. "Even though it's a small effect, in conversation, people respond to fast, subtle cues about each other's understanding, intention and empathy. If you are slightly slower reacting as I tell you about something made me really angry, that could signal to me that you did not pick up my message."
Such an effect could snowball, Havas says, but the outcome could also be positive: "Maybe if I am not picking up sad, angry cues in the environment, that will make me happier."
In theoretical terms, the finding supports a psychological hypothesis called "embodied cognition," says Glenberg, now a professor of psychology at Arizona State University. "The idea of embodied cognition is that all our cognitive processes, even those that have been thought of as very abstract, are actually rooted in basic bodily processes of perception, action and emotion."
Task 2. look at the pictures (1-5). How do you think these people feel?
Task 3. Listen and write how each person feels.
Speaker 1. ______ Speaker 3. ______
Speaker 2. ______
Task 4. Paraphrase the following statements. Do you agree or disagree? Why (not)?
A day of sorrow is longer than a month of joy.
Where there is love there is happiness.
Our desire for happiness has helped develop a multi-million industry focused on pleasure. Despite this, many of us still seem to be unhappy! Psychologist Janet Wells seems to know exactly why. Here we uncover her secrets of how to actually achieve that missing happiness.
In the past, people rarely discussed whether they were happy or not and kept their feelings to themselves. Today though, magazine articles giving advice on the pursuit of happiness bombard us from all sides. It would appear that being unhappy is now generally unacceptable, especially where the younger generation is concerned. These days, it is that particular group that feels quite comfortable talking openly about happiness or a lack of it. They believe that a state of happiness equals success and that without success they are nothing.
It seems that people are more willing to try to react differently to life’s events. Janet is a fine example of this and has found that changing her outlook has brought her a certain amount of happiness. 1_____ For example, never admitting that she was wrong because that would undoubtedly make her seem weak and vulnerable, or criticising herself endlessly, certain that she did not deserve success and happiness.
She was, at one point, a definite pessimist. 2_____ The turning point in her life was when the knowledge she gained through her studies allowed her to face up to the fact that it was possible to actually get rid of doubts and learn to be more contented with yourself and your life. This helped her to change many aspects of her life, including her outlook, her relationships and her choices.
Change, of course, brings uncertainty and uncertainty can create fear. Most of us tend to stay with what we know rather than choose any form of change. As a result, we continue to be unhappy. If we do decide to change things, however, we then begin a journey that only we can map out. 3_____ According to Janet’s research, people can have similar upbringings yet have very different ideas and responses to the exact same events.
In support of these findings she quotes the ancient Greek philosopher Epictetus who said, “It is not things in themselves that trouble us, but our opinion of those things.” 4._____ It is not always possible to change what happens to us, but we can always change how we translate what happens to us.
Janet herself has had to deal with moments of both happiness and unhappiness in her own personal life. She admits to not being able to actually help people to be happy, but stresses that if you can prevent unhappiness then you have a good chance of being a contented individual. 5_____ Although it is something we each need to do for ourselves, as long as we really want to succeed, she believes we will be able to bring about change.
She would, however, like to advise people that happiness is not a goal but an emotional response to things that happen and that it is perfectly natural to feel sad at times. In order to help happiness develop and grow, we need to feel accepted by those around us and feel like valuable members of society. 6 _____ Focusing on the positive things going on around us is the key.
In thinking and worrying about what has happened in the past and anxiously planning the future,we can shut ourselves off from any positive feelings for what lies ahead. 7 _____ Generally speaking, she recommends living for now, giving yourself a little reward, not because you deserve it, but because it is a pleasant, positive thing to do to encourage positive thinking.
Task 5. Read the article and choose from the list A-H the sentence which best fits each gap (1-7) in the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A. Janet warns that we should not criticise or demand too much of ourselves as this could not undermine feeling accepted and valued.
B. She believed that if you expected little in life then you would be able to avoid disappointment.
C. So, we create our own translations of things that happen in life and those translations make us decide how we feel about an event and what we need to do about it.
D. As a result, the aspect of surprise and pleasure can be lost.
E. We can, however, also learn from other people.
F. She began to understand that she had made her own life difficult because she tended to think or act in harmful ways.
G. Unhappiness is a completely rational response to certain losses.
H. She would like to help people achieve that level of contentment.
1. desire for happiness
2. focused on pleasure
3. uncover one’s secrets
4. v.achieve (one’s goal, one’s purpose)
5. keep one’s feelings to oneself
6. give advice on the pursuit of…
7. to be unacceptable
8. younger generation
9. talk openly about
10. lack of smth. (~ of cooperation, ~ of balance, ~ of wit);
for a ~ of smth.
to lack (for); to be ~ing in common sense)
11. to equal success
12. to be willing
13. outlook (change one’s ~)
14. a certain amount of smth.
15. to tend to do
16. to avoid smth. (~ disappointment)
17. to admit
20. deserve success and happiness
21. turning point in one’s life
22. to gain knowledge
23. to allow smth.
24. to face up to the fact
25. get rid of smth.
26. to be contented,
a contented individual
27. to map out a journey
to bring up a child
29. to deal with smth.
30. to prevent smth.
31. emotional response
33. to shut oneself off smth.
Task 6.Translate into English
отгородиться, эмоциональный отклик, ценный подарок, довольный собой человек, предотвратить что-либо, быть неприемлемым, воспитать ребенка, воспитание / прошлое, приобретать знания, уязвимый, заслуживать счастья, раскрывать секреты, стремление к счастью, поворотный момент в чьей-либо жизни, столкнуться с фактом, несомненно, молодое поколение, избежать разочарования, спланировать путешествие, признавать, недостаток / отсутствие чего-либо.
Task 7. Paraphrase the sentences using words and word combinations given in the GLOSSARY.
1) People’s wish to be happy is quite natural. 2) Mabel received an expensive gift from her colleagues. 3) Psychologists say that it is rather difficult to make people tell their secrets. 4) Getting a new job is a very important moment in young people’s lives. 5) Children may look helpless creatures but they are strong in fact. 6) It is out of the question that children should obey the parents. 7) Teachers help young people to get knowledge. 8) After finishing school children come across the fact of choosing future profession. 9) He had to take up a part-time job for the shortage of money. 10) After the accident the young man concealed his feeling from his relatives and became a sulky person.
Task 8. Translate the following sentences into English:
1) В своей новой книге известный психолог раскрывает секреты, как достичь счастья. 2) Желание быть счастливым свойственно всем, независимо от возраста, социального статуса и воспитания. Счастье все люди понимают и чувствуют по-разному. 3) В прошлом люди держали свои эмоции и чувства при себе и не говорили открыто с посторонними. Тогда это было не принято. 4) Люди с высокой самооценкой всегда могут достичь большего, так как понимают, что заслуживают успеха и счастья. 5) Некоторые боятся перемен и той неопределенности, которая приходит вместе с переменами, но для того, чтобы быть довольным собой и своей жизнью, нужно изменить свои привычки, взгляды, круг общения (отношения). 6) Осознание того, что вы можете сами предотвратить несчастья, добиться успеха станет поворотным моментом в вашей жизни. Сконцентрироваться на положительных вещах, которые происходят вокруг – вот самое главное. 7) Совершенно естественно чувствовать временами грусть, но мы не должны бесконечно критиковать себя и требовать от себя слишком многого. Это подрывает нашу веру в то, что мы приняты в обществе, что нас ценят. 8) Под счастьем люди понимают либо состояние, когда человек испытывает положительные эмоции, либо удовлетворенность жизнью. 9) Счастье, по мнению психологов, это не цель, а эмоциональный отклик на происходящее, то есть счастье – это внутренне состояние. 10) Молодые не стесняются открыто говорить о своих чувствах, о счастье или его отсутствии. Они отождествляют счастье с успехом. Быть счастливым значит быть успешным.
Task 9. Answer the following questions on the text:
1. What is the main source of happiness of the younger generation?
2. In what way a person can change his life for better, according to Janet Wells?
3. Do you agree that happiness is an emotional response and unhappiness is a rational response to things that happen to us?
4. In what way thinking less about the past and the future can make a person happier?
1. In pairs, discuss three of the main points the writer makes.
2. In pairs, discuss the following questions:
· What do you do to cheer yourself up
· Are you an optimist or pessimist
3. Why do peoples’ ideas of happiness differ so much?
4. What are the 5 keys to happiness? Share your opinion.
Task 10. Text analysis
1. What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
2. Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs?
3. Summarize the article. Mind the rules of summary writing.
a. Watch the video “Alfred Hitchcock’s definition of happiness”. Do you agree that emotions are non-productive and they should be eliminated from your work?
1. A. Hitchcock is a _____ person.
2. Negative emotions are ______ energy.
3. A sharp word may ______ A. Hitchcock for days.
4. Without feeling negative emotions you can ______ and the road is clear _____.
b. Scan the text about emotional eating to answer the following questions:
1. What is an emotional eating?
2. What are the symptoms of emotional hunger?
3. What are comfort foods and what feelings are they associated with?
4. Do men and women consume the same comfort foods?
5. Does the choice of comfort foods depend on negative or positive feelings ?
Emotional Eating: Feeding Your Feelings
When you're happy, your food of choice could be steak or pizza,when you're sad it could be ice cream or cookies, and when you're bored it could be potato chips. Food does more than fill our stomachs - it also satisfies feelings, and when you quench those feelings with comfort food when your stomach isn't growling, that's emotional eating.
"Emotional eating is eating for reasons other than hunger," says Jane Jakubczak, a registered dietitian at the University of Maryland. "Instead of the physical symptom of hunger initiating the eating, an emotion triggers the eating."
What are the telltale signs of emotional eating, what foods are the most likely culprits when it comes to emotional eating, and how it can be overcome? Experts help WebMD find the answers.
How to Tell the Difference
There are several differences between emotional hunger and physical hunger, according to the University of Texas Counseling and Mental Health Center web site:
1. Emotional hunger comes on suddenly; physical hunger occurs gradually.
2. When you are eating to fill a void that isn't related to an empty stomach, you crave a specific food, such as pizza or ice cream, and only that food will meet your need. When you eat because you are actually hungry, you're open to options.
3. Emotional hunger feels like it needs to be satisfied instantly with the food you crave; physical hunger can wait.
4. Even when you are full, if you're eating to satisfy an emotional need, you're more likely to keep eating. When you're eating because you're hungry, you're more likely to stop when you're full.
5. Emotional eating can leave behind feelings of guilt; eating when you are physically hungry does not.
When emotional hunger rumbles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that you're focused on a particular food, which is likely a comfort food.
"Comfort foods are foods a person eats to obtain or maintain a feeling," says Brian Wansink, PhD, director of the Food and Brand Lab at the University of Illinois. "Comfort foods are often wrongly associated with negative moods, and indeed, people often consume them when they're down or depressed, but interestingly enough, comfort foods are also consumed to maintain good moods."
Ice cream is first on the comfort food list. After ice cream, comfort foods break down by sex: For women it's chocolate and cookies; for men it's pizza, steak, and casserole, explains Wansink.
And what you reach for when eating to satisfy an emotion depends on the emotion. According to an article by Wansink, published in the July 2000 American Demographics, "The types of comfort foods a person is drawn toward varies depending on their mood. People in happy moods tended to prefer ... foods such as pizza or steak (32%). Sad people reached for ice cream and cookies 39% of the time, and 36% of bored people opened up a bag of potato chips."
c. Make up a power-point presentation on one of the following topics:
1. Facial expressions of emotions.
2. Emotional intelligence.
3. How to control emotions.
Moods and Emotions
a) Study the following adjectives. Which are positive/negative?
b) Make up derivative nouns (depressed – depression)
Depressed, cheerful, generous, stressed, frustrated, calm, glad, relaxed, joyful, aggressive, happy, lonely, worried, angry, nervous, sad, excited, furious, shy, tense, lazy, optimistic, proud, terrible, funny
Task 13. Match the feelings to the physical sensations. Make up sentences of your own.
angry butterflies in the stomach
frightened heart pounding
excited sweaty palms
hungry rush of adrenaline
stressed stomach rumbling
nervous red face
Task 14. Cross out the words which don’t go with verb feel.Think of the situations when a person usually feels like that.
Fear, lonely, astonished, stressed, sick, irritable, alive, angry, offended, frustrated, hungry, better, panic, strong, healthy, obsessive
Task 15.Listen to five people talking about different situations. Match each speaker to the way they feel.
A. They’re dreading a visit from their
cousin. Speaker 1.____
B. They’re looking forward to their
friend coming. Speaker 2.____
C. They find student life fascinating. Speaker 3.____
D. They miss their friend. Speaker 4.____
E. They like having friends over for
dinner. Speaker 5.____
Task 16.Extreme adjectives
a. In pairs, use the adjectives from the list to act out short exchanges.
Furious,overjoyed, exhausted, delighted, appalling, filthy, heartbroken, fantastic, huge, delicious, terrified
Model: A: You must be tired.
B: Tired! I’m exhausted.
1. You must be pleased.
2. You must have been scared.
3. You look angry.
4. The food was bad.
5. She seems happy with her exam results.
6. Sarah seemed upset.
b. Read the text below and replace the words in bold with appropriate extreme adjectives.
Joy was feeling tired. She had spent all afternoon making a tasty pie. She had just taken it out of the oven and was really pleased with the results. She put it on the window-sill to cool and went off to have a short nap. Suddenly, there was a loud crash in the kitchen. She felt really scared. When she tiptoed into the kitchen, she was shocked to see a big, dirty, dog eating her pie. She was really angry! “This is bad,” she thought. The extremely good thing was that this was her neighbour’s dog who had been lost for over a week. She knew her neighbor was upset about the whole incident, so when she phone him to give him the news, he was, of course, happy.
Task 17. Idioms and fixed phrases
a. What character qualities are these animals associated with? Look at the pictures and complete the idioms.
1. as brave as a(n) ___________
2. as wise as a(n) ____________
3. as stubborn as a(n) ________
4. as cunning as a(n) _________
5. as quiet as a(n) ___________
6. as sick as a(n) ____________
7. as proud as a(n) ___________
8. as slow as a(n) ____________
b. Match the adjectives from above with their opposites below.
flexible, straightforward, modest, foolish, quick, cowardly, noisy, healthy;
c. Fill in: white, quick, red, brown, quiet
1. as _____ as a berry
2. as _____ as a mouse
3. as _____ as a sheet
4. as _____ as a flash
5. as _____ as a beetroot
Task 18. Phrasal verbs.
a. Fill in up or down to complete the sentences.
b. Make up sentences of your own with the phrasal verbs
1. She’s been quite depressed recently. This holiday will really cheer her _____
2. Calm _____! Things aren’t as bad as they seem!
3. Things are easing _____ a bit at work. I won’t have to work so late from now on.
4. I don’t like watching sad films. They always get me _____.
5. You have been so stressed lately; you must relax and loosen _____ a bit or you will get ill.
6. Bob really let me _____. I was counting on him to complete the project on time.
7. Open _____ a bit and tell me how you feel.
8. It’s been such a tiring day, let’s go to the cinema and wind _____.
Task 19. Fill in prepositions for, at, of, in, about, to, by, with. Make up sentences.
afraid ___ sth; amused ___ sth; angry ___ sb; annoyed ___ sb ___ sth; anxious ___ sth; ashamed ___ sb; bored ___ sth/sb; brilliant ___sth; close ___ sb; delighted ___ sth; disappointed ___ sth/sb; exited ___sth; faithful ___ sb; friendly ___sb; frightened ___ sth; furious ___sb___sth; grateful___sb___sth; jealous ___sb; nervous ___ sth; pleased___sb; proud ___sth; rude ___sb; sensitive ___ sth; upset ___ sth;
Task 20. You will hear 5 therapists talking about their work. Listen and match the descriptions of different kinds of therapy (A-F) to the speakers (1-5). There is one extra therapy which you do not need to use.
A. dealing with your problems while
listening to music; Speaker 1 ___
B. relaxing and thinking about your
emotions; Speaker 2___
C. explaining your problems to your
family; Speaker 3 ___
D. working out your problems through
films; Speaker 4 ___
E. discussing problems in groups;
F. expressing feelings through Speaker 5 ___
a. You will hear a radio talk about cat’s body language. For questions 1-7 chose the best answer A, B, or C.
1. Roger believes that his work is
A. rather boring
C. quite exiting
2. Roger says that
A. he understands exactly what cats are thinking
B. cat’s body language can tell us how they feel
C. he is always surprised by the way cats behave
3. A cat shows how it feels by moving its
4. If a cat’s tail is fluffed up and pointing down, the cat is
A. protecting itself
B. very angry
5. When too cats are about to fight, the most aggressive one
A. will have its ears pointing forward
B. will sound frightened
C. won’t make a sound
6. Cats can understand if you are friendly to them by the way you
A. talk to them
B. touch them
C. look at them
7. Which of the following best describes the interviewer’s attitude?
A. She doesn’t like cats
B. She doesn’t believe what Roger is saying
C. She is surprised
b. In what way do we use body language to express our feelings? Think of as many examples as you can and discuss in pairs.
a. Here are some photographs of common situations. Talk to each other. Which three situations are the most stressful?
b. In pairs, answer the following questions
· What other activities/experiences in your life do you find stressful? Why?
· What do you usually do to relax?
Task 23. Listen to two students doing the speaking tasks above and assess their performance in terms of: grammar and vocabulary, pronunciation, interactive communication,how far they’ve answered the question.
SENSE AND SENSIBILITY
Jane Austen (1775-1817), a famous English writer, wrote about the ordinary world of men and women as it was in the early 19th century, a place where love and romance were hindered by economics and human imperfection. Her heroines had distinct personalities and her characters were never completely good or completely evil but more complicated mixtures. Some of her most famous stories are Pride and Prejudice (1813), Sense and Sensibility (1811), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815).
In this extract from Sense and Sensibility, Mr. Henry Dashwood has recently died and left all his marriage, John. His second wife, Mrs. Dashwood, and her three daughters are left without a permanent home and very little money. Mr. John Dashwood is weak and his wife is selfish and they have little concern for the family welfare.
No sooner was his father's funeral over, than Mrs. John Dashwood, without sending any notice of her intention to her mother-in-law, arrived with her child and their attendants. No one could dispute her right to come; the house was her husband's from the moment of his father's death. This thoughtless behavior would have been highly unpleasing to any woman with ordinary feelings in Mrs. Dashwood's situation. 1. ______ Mrs. John Dashwood had never been a favourite with any of her husband's family: but she had had no opportunity, till the present, of showing them with how little attention to the comfort of other people she could act when occasion required it.
Mrs. Dashwoodwas so deeply hurt by this ungracious behaviour, and she hated her daughter-in-law so much for it, that, on her arrival, she would have quitted the house for ever. 2. _____ Also, her own tender love for all her three children helped her change her mind, and for their sakes she avoided a disagreement with their brother.
Elinor, the eldest daughter, possessed a great strength of understanding, and coolness of judgment. 3. _____ She was often able to influence Mrs. Dashwood, whose enthusiastic nature sometimes led to hasty decisions. 4. _____ It was a knowledge which her mother had yet to learn, and which one of her sisters was determined never to be taught.
Marianne's abilities were, in many respects, quite equal to Elinor's. She was sensible and clever; but her sorrows and joys had no limits. She was generous, amiable, interesting: she was everything but prudent. The resemblance between her and her mother was striking.
Elinor was concerned about her sister's strong emotions. But Mrs. Dashwood valued and cherishedMarianne’s sensibility, so like her own. 5. _____Thepain of grief which overpowered them at first, was willingly renewed and created again and again. They let themselves be overwhelmed by their sorrow and were determined never to be comforted in future. 6. _____ She could consult with her brother, could welcome her sister-in-law on her arrival, and treat her politely. She also tried to convince her mother to do the same and encourage her to show similar forbearance.
Margaret, the other sister, was a good-humoured, agreeable girl. 7. _____. So, at thirteen, she was not likely to equal her sisters later in life.
Task 24. Read the text and choose from the list A-H the sentence which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A. But she had already shown that she was as romantic as Marianne, without having much of her sense.
B. However, her eldest girl induced her think about how inappropriate that would seem.
C. But in Mrs. Dashwood’s mind, with her strong sense of honour and her generous nature, the offence made her feel absolutely disgusted.
D. Elinor, too, was suffering; but still she could struggle, she could make an effort.
E. These qualities enabled her to be the counsellor of her mother,though she was only nineteen.
F. The two women encouraged each other to continually express how they felt.
G. Elinor had an excellent heart, her disposition was affectionate, and her feelings were strong: but she knew how to control them.
H. Mr. John Dashwood didn’t have the strong feelings of the rest of the family.
1. to be hindered by something
2. human imperfection
4. complicated mixtures
7. to dispute one’s rights
8. to be a favourite with
9. to have an opportunity
10. inconsiderate; syn. thoughtless
12. to be deeply hurt by
13. behavior (thoughtless ~, impolite ~)
14. change one’s mind
15. to avoid a disagreement
16. to possess a strength of understanding
17. to feel disgusted
19. to influence on
20. nature; enthusiastic ~,
21. hasty decisions
22. affectionate nature
23. to be determined to
24. in many respects
25. sorrows and joys
27. similarity; syn. likeness, resemblance
28. sense of honour
29. to cherish smth.
30. pain of grief
31. to overpower, to be overwhelmed by
32. to treat smb. politely
33. to convince smb. to do smth.
34. to encourage
37. never to be comforted
38. n. concern;
to have little ~;
to be ~ed about;
to be ~ed in;
to be ~ed with;
Task 25. Translate into Russian.
относиться вежливо, приятный в общении, чувство достоинства, горе и радость, во многих отношениях, неподобающее поведение, оспаривать чьи-либо права, быть глубоко уязвленным, необдуманное поведение, великодушный, убедить/уговорить кого-либо, быть обеспокоенным чем-либо, быть всеобщим любимчиком, поразительное сходство, поспешные решения, быть охваченным горем / горе навалилось но кого-либо, избегать конфликта, быть решительно настроенным, любвеобильная натура, лелеять.
Task 26. Paraphrase the sentences using Glossary
1) The mistress of the house was utterly offended by incorrect behaviour of the young man. 2) Nobody doubted that the two people were relatives. They were strongly alike. 3) The daughter persuaded the mother to be polite and not to make a scandal.4)
Task 27. Translate the following Russian sentences into English using as many words and expressions from Task 10 as possible:
1) В романе «Разум и чувства» известная писательница Дж. Остин описывает обычную жизнь своих современников, в которой переплетаются любовь, преданность и людские пороки. 2) Так как Джон Дэшвуд был единственным наследником мужского пола, никто не оспаривал его права на наследство. 3) Необдуманное поведение молодой женщины стало причиной обиды со стороны ее гостей. Они были глубоко уязвлены таким отношением. Такое невежливое поведение было совершенно неприемлемо. 4) Такие качества, как понимание и холодность суждений позволяют объективно оценить ситуацию и не принимать поспешные решения, о которых впоследствии придется жалеть. 5) Благоразумныйчеловек должен уметь контролировать свои чувства, в некотором отношении с этим связан успех предприятия. 6) Отца беспокоило будущее Майкла, так как будучи щедрым, приятным в общении молодым человеком, он временамисовершенно не владел собой. 7) Никто не усомнился в том, что вновь прибывшие были близкими родственниками – сходство было поразительным. 8) Бедная мать была так охвачена горем, что врач еле успокоил ее, даже когда она узнала, что ее сын не пострадал в ужасной аварии. 9) Единственный ребенок в семье привыкает к тому, что его холят и лелеют все вокруг, и нередко вырастает эгоистичным и несознательным человеком. 10) Обида матери не имела границ, но Элинор убедила ее обращаться с братом и его женой вежливо и проявлять самоконтроль.
a. Find adjectives the writer uses to describe each character. In pairs use them to describe their personalities.
b. Imagine you were Elinor. How would you feel.
Task 29. Listen to the piece of music. What images related to the text come to mind.
Task 30. Watch the video “Emotional Intelligence” and discuss it with your groupmates.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING I
THE HAPPY MAN
W. Somerset Maugham
William Somerset Maugham (1874-1966), a well-known English novelist, short-story writer, playwright and essayist, was the son of a British diplomat. He was educated at King’s School at Canturbury, studied painting in Paris, went to Heidelberg University in Germany and studied to be a doctor in St. Thomas Hospital in England. Although Somerset Maugham did not denounce the contemporarysocial order, he was critical of the morals, the narrow-mindedness and hypocrisy of bourgeois society. It was his autobiographical novel Of Human Bondage (1951) and the novel The Moon and Sixpence (1919) based on the life of the French artist Paul Gauguin, that won him fame. Somerset Maugham was also a master of the short story.
Somerset Maugham’s style of writing is clear and precise. He does not impose his views on the reader. He puts a question and leaves it to the reader to answer it. When criticizing something he sounds rather amused than otherwise.
It is a dangerous thing to order the lives of others and I have often wondered at the self-confidence of politicians, reformers and suchlike who are prepared to force upon their fellows measures that must alter their manners, habits, and points of view. I have always hesitated to give advice, for how can one advise another how to act unless one knows that other as well as one knows oneself? Heaven knows, I know little enough of myself: I know nothing of others. We can only guess at the thoughts and emotions of our neighbours. Each one of us is a prisoner in a solitary tower and he communicates with the other prisoners, who form mankind, by conventional signs that have not quite the same meaning for them as for himself. And life, unfortunately, is something that you can lead but once; mistakesare often irreparable, and who am I that I should tell this one and that how he should lead it? Life is a difficult business and I have found it hard enough to make my own a complete and rounded thing; I have not been tempted to teach my neighbor what he should do with his. But there are men who flounder at the journey's start, the way before them is confused and hazardous, and on occasion, however unwillingly, I have been forced to point the finger of fate. Sometimes men have said to me, what shall I do with my life? And I have seen myself for a moment wrapped in the dark cloak of Destiny.
Once I know that I advised well.
I was a young man and I lived in a modest apartment in London near Victoria Station. Late one afternoon, when I was beginning to think that I had worked enough for that day, I heard a ring at the bell. I opened the door to a total stranger. He asked me my name; I told him. He asked if he might come in.
I led him into my sitting-room and begged him to sit down. He seemed a trifle embarrassed. I offered him a cigarette and he had some difficulty in lighting it without letting go of his hat. When he had satisfactorily achieved this feat I asked him if I should not put it on a chair for him. He quickly did this and while doing it dropped his umbrella.
“I hope you don't mind my coming to see you like this,” he said. “My name is Stephens and I am a doctor. You're in the medical, I believe?”
“Yes, but I don't practice.”
“No, I know. I've just read a book of yours about Spain and I wanted to ask you about it.”
“It's not a very good book, I'm afraid.”
“The fact remains that you know something about Spain and here's no one else I know who does. And I thought perhaps you wouldn't mind giving me some information.”
“I shall be very glad.”
He was silent for a moment. He reached out for his hat and holding it in one hand absent-mindedly stroked it with the other. I surmised that it gave him confidence.
“I hope you won't think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to you like this.” He gave an apologetic laugh. “I'm not going to tell you the story of my life.”
When people say this to me I always know that it is precisely what they are going to do. I do not mind. In fact I rather like it.
“I was brought up by two old aunts. I've never been anywhere. I've never done anything. I've been married for six years. I have no children. I'm a medical officer at the Camberwell Infirmary. I can't stick it any more.”
There was something very striking in the short, sharp sentences he used. They had a forcible ring. I had not given him more than a cursory glance, but now I looked at him with curiosity. He was a little man, thick-set and stout, of thirty perhaps, with a round red face from which shone small, dark and very bright eyes. His black hair was cropped close to a bullet-shaped head. He was dressed in a blue suit a good deal the worse for wear. It was baggy at the knees and the pockets bulgeduntidily.
“You know what the duties are of a medical officer in an infirmary. One day is pretty much like another. And that's all I've got to look forward to for the rest of my life.Do you think it's worth it?”
“It's a means of livelihood,” I answered.
“Yes, I know. The money's pretty good”
“I don't exactly know why you've come to me.”
“Well, I wanted to know whether you thought there would be any chance for anEnglish doctor in Spain?”
“I don't know, I just have a fancy for it”
“It's not like Carmen, you know.”
“But there's sunshine there, and there's good wine, and there's colour, and there's air you can breathe. Let me say what I have to say straight out. I heard by accident that there was no English doctor in Seville. Do you think I could earn a living there? Is it madness to give up a good safe job for an uncertainty? “
“What does your wife think about it?”
“It's a great risk.”
“I know. But if you say take it, I will; if you say stay where you are, I'll stay.”
He was looking at me intently with those bright dark eyes of his and I knew that he meant what he said. I reflected for a moment.
“Your whole future is concerned: you must decide for yourself. But this I can tell you: if you don't want money but are content to earn just enough to keep body and soul together, then go. For you will lead a wonderful life.”
He left me, I thought about him for a day or two, and then forgot. The episode passedcompletely from my memory.
Many years later, fifteen at least, I happened to be in Seville and having some trifling indisposition asked the hotel porter whether there was an English doctor in the town. He said there was and gave me the address. I took a cab and as I drove up to the house a little fat man came out of it. He hesitated when he caught sight of me.
“Have you come to see me?”' he said. “I'm the English doctor.”
I explained my errand and he asked me to come in. He lived in an ordinary Spanish house, with a patio, and his consulting room which led out of it was littered with papers, books, medical appliances, and lumber. The sight of it would have startled a squeamish patient. We did our business and then I asked the doctor what his fee was. He shook his head and smiled.
“There's no fee.”
“Why on earth not?”
“Don't you remember me? Why, I'm here because of something you said to me. You changed my whole life for me. I'm Stephens.”
I had not the least notion what he was talking about. He reminded me of our interview, he repeated to me what we had said, and gradually, out of the night, a dim recollection of the incident came back to me.
“I was wondering if I'd ever see you again,' he said, 'I was wondering if ever I'd have a chance of thanking you for all you've done for me.”
“It's been a success then?”
I looked at him. He was very fat now and bald, but his eyes twinkledgaily and his fleshy, red face bore an expression of perfect good-humour. The clothes he wore, terribly shabby they were, had been made obviously by a Spanish tailor and his hat was the wide brimmed sombrero of the Spaniard. He looked to me as though he knew a good bottle of wine when he saw it. He had a dissipated, though entirely sympathetic, appearance. You might have hesitated to let him remove your appendix, but you could not haveimagined a more delightful creature to drink a glass of wine with.
“Surely you were married?” I said.
‘Yes. My wife didn't like Spain, she went back to Camberwell, shewas more at home there.’
“Oh, I'm sorry for that.’
His black eyes flashed a bacchanalian smile. He really had somewhat the look of a young Silenus.
“Life is full of compensations,” he murmured.
The words were hardly out of his mouth when a Spanish woman, no longer in her first youth, but still boldly and voluptuously beautiful, appeared at the door. She spoke to him in Spanish, and I could not fail to perceive that she was the mistress of the house.
As he stood at the door to let me out he said to me:
“You told me when last I saw you that if I came here I should earn just enough money to keep body and soul together, but that I should lead a wonderful life. Well, I want to tell you that you were right. Poor I have been and poor I shall always be, but by heaven I've enjoyed myself. I wouldn't exchange the life I've had with that of any king in the world.”
SUPPLEMENTARY READING II
How Emotions and Feelings Shape Learning
Body, thought, and emotion are intimately blended through complex nerve networks, and function in concert to shape our awareness. Emotions interpret, arrange, direct, and summarize information received through the five senses. They color our perception of the world and we often unconsciously react to them. They are primary and universal survival tools that permit us to experience joy, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, or threat. Since emotions are linked to survival, they receive neurological message priority. This article will provide insight into just how our feelings and emotions impact the quality of our learning.
Are emotions and feelings the same thing? The difference is that feelings are not linked to survival. Furthermore, they are context-specific responses shaped by the environment, culture, and society. Emotions can be measured through variations in blood pressure, heart rate variability, brain-imaging techniques, and electro-dermal response. Feelings are difficult to measure. Some examples of feelings are frustration, anticipation, jealousy, cynicism, worry, and optimism. In the present context, I have reason for being particular about this distinction, though most people lump these together for convenience.
Traumatic events and enduring stress can take a toll on a person's physical and psychological health. The memory and accompanying negative emotions of a stressful incident or condition, at any point in life, can lay dormant for years. When triggered by some later stressful event, they can evoke negative beliefs, desires, fantasies, compulsions, obsessions, addictions, or dissociation. This toxic brew can inhibit learning and memory, and generally fracture human wholeness. Unless the person feels emotionally secure, it is almost impossible for the thinking parts of the brain (neo-cortex and frontal lobes) to function effectively.
All living things are created with built-in defense mechanisms. The human version is a fight-or-flight reaction to perceived threats. Stressors, whether sudden and unexpected or consistent and ongoing, trigger this natural effect. Most people are unaware of the common causes and the long-term effects of stress.
Stress is cumulative, and the effects of substantial stress are dissipated only after a period of twelve to eighteen months. Low-level consistent stress keeps the body in a constant fight-or-flight stance. This means that the mind-body is not able to operate at maximum performance. In order to maintain this steady defense mode, energy is diverted away from both the immune system and the brain. Stress and constant fear, at any age, create a chemical imbalance, which can confuse the brain's normal circuits.
A person's physical and emotional well-being is closely linked to the ability to effectively act, think, and learn. Long-term exposure to threat, conflict, or humiliation will damage self-esteem and may result in a condition known as learned helplessness. This chronic defensive posture is characterized by a vortex of negative emotions, self-limiting beliefs, apathy, anxiety, fear, mistrust, immature coping behaviors, and a diminished interest and ability to process information. This state is context-specific and can be triggered over and over by contact with a certain teacher, peer, subject, building, or memory.
An unusual physiological effect occurs during emotionally-stressful conditions. As a reflex response to a threat, the eyes move peripherally so that they can monitor a greater field of vision. This makes it virtually impossible for the eyes to track across a page of writing. Enduring stress will strengthen the muscles of the outer eye, making central focus and tracking a permanent problem. A condition of traumatized children is called wall-eye where both eyes are locked in a sustained distrustful peripheral focus. This condition can be overcome through whole-brain integration exercises.
There are many theories on emotions. According to Leslie Cameron-Bandler, author of Emotional Hostage: Rescuing Your Emotional Life, it is possible to experience 421 emotions, from rage to peace of mind. Emotion is literally energy in motion. Emotions and external behavior influence one another. Behavior, whether desirable or not, is often a manifestation of our emotions. And since the mind-body is one system, the reverse is true; emotion affects physiology.
Emotions influence perception and learning. In her book, Molecules of Emotions, Dr. Candace Pert wrote:
"The brain filters our perceptions to create our 'reality.' The decisions about what we perceive, remember, and learn are regulated by emotion ― the interaction of peptides and receptors in the brain. At the same time, emotions are a response to this filtered reality, memories, and learning."
Certain positive emotions and feelings act as catalysts to learning. Curiosity, appreciation, and calmness enable receptivity and inhibit resistance. High self-esteem and self-confidence boost the learning process. Our innate personality types can indicate how we are apt to deal with the range of situations that life offers, and in which environments we are most comfortable.
As George Bernard Shaw said, Better keep yourself clean and bright; you are the window through which you must see the world.
Brian Walsh, PhD.