Task 1. Think over the following questions and discuss them with your groupmates:
1 What is a barrier? What barriers do we face when we go to live or study in a foreign country?
2) How can communication barriers be overcome?
Task 2. Scan the following text to define different causes of communication barriers:
Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking – ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus, the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases.
Stella Ting-Toomey describes three ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into.
Second are "behavior constraints." Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye – or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they are talking – all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture.
Ting-Toomey's third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation.
All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures.
Task 3. Look at the map. What do you think the highlighted regions have in common: culture – religion – language – other?
A. Listen and fill in the missing words/phrases.
• A lot of 1)______________ are in English.
• 2) ______________ and government negotiations are usually conducted in English.
• Many countries make a lot of money from British 3) _______________.
• Most of the world’s best known 4) _________________ come from the USA or the UK.
• The USA exports 5) ___________________ to the whole world.
B. Match the sentences in Ex. 2a to the topics below. Can you think of other factors which have encouraged the use of English around the world?
• the media 4 • tourism __ • the Internet __ • international trade __ • world politics __
Task 5. Paraphrase the quotations below. Which one do you agree with? Why?
If we all spoke the same language, there would be fewer conflicts and wars.
Every time a language dies, the world loses a piece of its ability to survive.
Task 6. In your opinion, will English be more widely spoken in the future? Why (not)? Can you think of any aspects of life where English is or will be the only language used?
A MULTILINGUAL INTERNET
As both Asian and European markets use the Internet more and more to conduct business, there will be an increasing need for more language choices for the different markets.
What do you think is the world's most widely spoken language? Most people are under the impression that it is English as this is the language that is used most frequently on the Internet. If this were true, it would, of course, bring enormous benefits for both worldwide communications and understanding, although it could also become a threat to cultural diversity. And English certainly does seem to be everywhere, from films to pop music and TV, and from business to science and other fields.
It comes as quite a surprise then that even though around 75% of the pages on the Web are in English, this is the mother tongue of only 5% of the world's population.1__This means that a relatively small number of the world's population can communicate well in English. Also, the number of people who can speak English is nowhere near as high as it is for other languages such as Chinese or Spanish.
So with more and more people accessing the Internet nowadays, including many businesses wanting to conduct e-business , the position of English is beginning to change. 2__As businesses in these regions increase their use of Internet it has become apparent to many of them that people would rather buy things online if they can order in their own language. It has also been pointed out that many people see the use of English as a threat to cultural diversity.
As a result, companies wanting to reach world markets are now beginning to realise they will have to translate their websites for their various customers. However, creating a multilingual website is not an easy task. 3__And unfortunately, they are problems with no easy solutions.
For one thing, companies are unable to use the automated translation systems which already exist in the market. 4__ This has left businesses all over the world facing a huge challenge with virtually no real information about how to do it.
And translating websites is only the first step that companies will have to deal with. There are also likely to be customers with questions or problems that they will need to discuss in their own language. Another thing companies will need to do is adapt their advertising materials so as not to offend different cultures. 5__ in Japan, for example, they do not tend to give their credit card details over the Web. There are also all sorts of legal issues to take into consideration.
Such vast changes will not happen overnight. In the first place it is impossible to say exactly how many texts there are on the Web as the number is changing all the time. 6__ Companies doing e-business simply need time to translate their sites into the various languages necessary to do business. Meanwhile more and more material in different languages is being added to the Web at an ever-increasing pace.
While all this is happening, small local companies doing e-business only in the language of their target market and who are also aware of the cultural aspects of that market, certainly be at an advantage.7__ The problems of language and culture could well limit larger companies from expanding and so offer more opportunities to smaller businesses in poorer areas of the world.
Task 7. Read the article and choose the most suitable sentence (A-H) for each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which is not needed. Which words helped you decide?
A. They may also have to change their way of doing business to suit certain customers.
B. The reason for this is that, quite simply, the quality is not good enough for professional use.
C. One reason for this is that both Europe and Asia have become growth areas for the Web.
D. But one thing which is certain is that a growth in the use of the Internet is guaranteed.
E. They are more likely to have the flexibility to be able to adapt quickly to changes.
F. What is more, the number of proficient speakers of the language is only slightly higher.
G. Most companies cannot afford to translate their sites into English.
H. Companies wishing to translate their sites for different markets face both technical and linguistic difficulties.
1. bring enormous benefits for
2. worldwide communication
3. a threat to sth. (e.g. ~ to cultural diversity)
4. to come as quite as a surprise
5. mother tongue
6. to ´access sth
n. ´access to sth
7. to conduct e-business
8. to become apparent to sb.
9. to point out
10. to reach world markets
11. a customer (regular ~, cool ~)
12. to create a (multilingual) site
13. problems with no easy solutions
14. for one thing
15. to face a huge challenge
17. to deal with
18. all sorts of legal issues
19. to take into consideration
20. vast changes
21. overnight (e.g. to happen ~, to become famous ~)
22. in the first place
23. to do business (to do e-business)
24. at an ever-increasing pace
v. to in´crease
n. ´increase (in sth.)
25. to be aware of
n. awareness (cultural ~, environmental ~)
n. awareness raising
26. target market (~ audience)
27. to be at an advantage
to take ~ of
to have an ~ over sb.
to have the ~ of
adj. advan´tageous (~ business, ~ position)
28. to limit sb. from doing sth.
29. to expand
n. expansion (e.g. expansion of the English language)
30. growth area
v. to slight sb (to feel ~ed)
Task 8.Translate into English:
быть в преимущественном положении; быть весьма удивительным; принять во внимание; во-первых; все более нарастающими темпами; сложная проблема; достичь мировых рынков; точка роста; столкнуться с серьезной проблемой; большие перемены; угроза культурному разнообразию; стать очевидным для кого-либо; принести огромную пользу; подчеркивать; осознавать; практически; постоянный клиент; целевой рынок; слегка, незначительно.
Task 9. Paraphrase the sentences using words and word combinations given in the GLOSSARY.
1) The advantage of using computer technologies in the system of health care is obvious to the government. 2) I wouldn’t say that the introduction of euro has been very useful for the world community. 3) In his speech he underlined the problems of the company’s financial policy. 4) Creating a multilingual site is not an easy task. 5) Practically everyone in the team was discouraged by the coach’s resignation. 6) She said she didn’t want to have anything to do with them. 7) I realize all my mistakes. 8) Scientists sound the alarm that the ecological situation on the planet is deteriorating very quickly. 9) He felt hurt when she passed by without greeting him.
Task 10. Translate the following sentences into English:
1) Многие ученые отмечают, что, несмотря на значительные преимущества, которые несет в себе глобализация для развития мировой коммуникации, она может стать угрозой для культурного многообразия, поскольку многие местные языки (vernacular languages) становятся жертвой (fall victim to sth) экспансии английского языка. 2) Руководство большинства компаний осознает те значительные изменения, которые претерпел мировой рынок за последние два десятилетия. Поэтому для них вполне очевидна необходимость ведения бизнеса в виртуальном пространстве для того, чтобы занять свою нишу в мировом рынке. 3) Для меня стало совершенной неожиданностью, что люди на улице узнают меня. Никогда не думала, что можно стать знаменитостью за ночь. 4) Фильм поднимает проблему формирования экологического сознания. Создатели фильма обращают особое внимание на то, что состояние планеты ухудшается все возрастающими темпами. 5) Он стал экспертом в решении непростых задач. Практически все клиенты, с которыми ему приходилось иметь дело, оказывались в выигрышном положении. 6) Прежде чем определить целевой рынок, мы должны были решить, какой регион мог стать для нас направлением развития. Здесь нельзя было торопиться, так как необходимо было принять во внимание различные юридические аспекты. 7) Прежде всего, создав многоязыковой сайт, мы сможем расширить свою целевую аудиторию. В результате, мы получим доступ ко многим, пока закрытым для нас рынкам сбыта (sales markets). 8) Он столкнулся с серьезной проблемой: плохое знание родного языка мешало ему сблизиться с этими людьми. 9) Он чувствовал себя ущемленным, так как никто не ответил на его приветствие. 10) Количество людей, подключивщихся к интернету в сельских местностях, незначительно возросло за последний месяц.
Task 11. Answer the following questions on the text:
ᵒ What threat does the spread of English pose?
ᵒ In what way is the position of English changing now with more and more people accessing the Internet?
ᵒ Why isn’t creating a multilingual site an easy task?
ᵒ In what way are local companies at an advantage nowadays?
Task 12. Now scan the text, underline and note down the reason why websites will need to become multilingual in the near future. Then, in pairs, discuss any other reasons you can think of for developing multilingual websites.
Task 13. In pairs, discuss the following questions.
• How might a multilingual Internet help you in your studies/work?
• Can you think of any drawbacks to such a system?
Task 14. Text analysis.
a) Analyze the title of the text. What is the role of paralinguistic means used in the title? What function does the topical sentence serve?
b) What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
c) Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs?
d) Summarize the article. Mind the rules of summary writing.
How to write a summary
1. Read the article to be summarized and make sure you understand it.
2. Outline the article. Note the major points.
3. Write a first draft of the summary without looking at the article.
4. Always use paraphrase when writing a summary. If you do copy a phrase from the original, be sure it is a very important phrase that is necessary and cannot be paraphrased. In this case put "quotation marks" around the phrase.
5. Target your first draft for approximately 1/4 the length of the original.
Task 15. Watch the video English as a global language and fill the gaps in the sentences below. Then, discuss in pairs the problems raised by Jay Walker. Do you agree with him? Why? (Why not?)
1. How many people are trying to learn English ______? Two billion of them.
2. Learning English can give people the ______ for a better life, a job, to be able to pay for school, or ______ better food on the table.
3. With English you can become part of a ______ conversation, a global conversation about global problems.
4. English is becoming the language of ______ ______.
5. English represents hope for a better future, where the world has a ______ language to solve its ______ problems
FOCUS ON DISCUSSION
Task 16. Scan the text about non-verbal communication to answer the following questions:
1) What is non-verbal communication?
2) What does the term ‘non-verbal communication’ encompass?
3) What non-verbal elements can be discovered in speech and written texts?
4) What are three principal areas of non-verbal communication in the process of interaction between individuals
5) In what way is non-verbal behavior determined by culture?
Non-verbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as body language (kinesics), but non-verbal communication encompasses much more, such as use of voice (paralanguage), touch (haptics), distance (proxemics), and physical environments/appearance. Typically overlooked in non-verbal communication are proxemics, or the informal space around the body and chronemics: the use of time. Not only considered eye contact, oculesics comprises the actions of looking while talking and listening, frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate.
Even speech contains non-verbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, rate, pitch, volume, and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation, and stress. Likewise, written texts have non-verbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the physical layout of a page. However, much of the study of non-verbal communication has focused on interaction between individuals, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction.
Non-verbal communication involves the processes of encoding and decoding. Encoding is the act of generating the information such as facial expressions, gestures, and postures. Decoding is the interpretation of information from received sensations from previous experiences.
Only a small percentage of the brain processes verbal communication. As infants, non-verbal communication is learned from social-emotional communication, making the face rather than words the major organ of communication. As children become verbal communicators, they begin to look at facial expressions, vocal tones, and other non-verbal elements more subconsciously.
Culture plays an important role in non-verbal communication. The most important thing to keep in mind about non-verbal behaviors is that they do not translate across cultures easily and can lead to serious misunderstanding. Human behaviors are driven by values, beliefs, and attitudes, and it is helpful to consider how these invisible aspects of culture drive the behaviors we can see.
Task 17. Can you provide any examples of cultural differences in non-verbal communication modes of your country?
Task 18. Prepare a presentation on cultural aspect of non-verbal communication. Make use of the text “A World of Body Language” (Workbook, pp, 8 – 9) as well as the Internet resources.
19. Means of communication.
a. Look at the pictures. Which verbs in the list collocate with each means of communication?
make, answer, address, communicate, write, send, receive, talk
b. What do you normally use these different means of communication to do? Discuss with a partner.
apply for a job, book a table at a restaurant, introduce somebody to somebody else, make an official complaint, ask a favour, invite someone to a party, set up a meeting, get somebody’s attention
e.g. A: I normally write a letter or an email to apply for a job.
B: Me too, but people can also send an application by fax.
c. What other means of communication can you think of?
d. Which means are: personal/impersonal, efficient/inefficient, economical/ costly, formal/informal, reliable/unreliable, complicated/easy?
Task 20. Aspects of language.
a. Fill in:
first, accent, native, body, language, tongue, speech, talk
1. You can understood a lot about how a person is feeling examining his ………… language.
2. Jack speaks four languages, but his ……. language is English.
3. Jane speaks French so well you’d think she was a ….. speaker.
4. It’s difficult to understand someone who has a strong regional …….. .
5. The official …….. of the Netherlands is Dutch.
6. German is his mother ……….. although he also speaks excellent French.
7. We made some small ……….. about the weather and then went on to talk about the contract.
8. I didn’t mean to offend you – it was just a figure of ………. .
b. Use four of the phrases from above to tell your partner about yourself.
Task 21. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences.
1. They look so alike it’s difficult to (say/tell/speak/talk) the difference between them.
2. Come on, (say/tell/talk/speak) your mind. I want your honest opinion.
3. It’s a surprise, so don’t (say/tell/speak/talk) a word.
4. He is such a chatterbox! He (says/tells/speaks/talks) non-stop.
5. She’s terribly bossy. She loves (saying/telling/speaking/talking) people what to do.
6. I’m meeting Jim tonight to (say/tell/speak/talk) business.
Task 22. Fill the gaps with touch, hold, or contact, then explain the phrases in bold.
1. I haven’t been in a classroom for years, so I’m a little out of touch with recent methology.
2. I need to get ……. of Laurie and tell her that tonight’s class is cancelled.
3. Let’s promise to write or call at least once a month so we don’t lose ……….. with each other.
4. The harbour master lost ………… with the ship.
5. Please ………… the line while I check to see if the doctor is in his office.
6. Journalists often come into ………. with famous people as part of their job.
Task 23. Prepositions.
a. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions.
1. to hear from sb (sb’s news); 2. to bump into sb; 3. to wave …... sb;
4. connect …… sb; 5. to glare … sb; 6. to smile ….. sb; 7. to chat …..
sb; 8. to shout ….. sb; 9. to whisper …… sb; 10. to write a letter ……
sb; 11. to wink …… sb; 12. to shake hands ….. sb; 13. to make an
appointment …… sb; 14. to communicate …… sb; 15. to have a
meeting ….. sb.
b. Now make a chain story using items from Ex. 23a.
S1: I wanted to write a letter to my friend Jonathan the other day since I hadn’t heard from him for a long time.
S2: So I went outside to buy some envelopes, and I bumped into my neighbourMrs West. ets.
Task 24. Use the verbs below in their correct form to complete the paragraph.
run, cut, switch, get, hang (x2), call, put
I tried to call him on his mobile several times, but he had 1) ………. It off, so I tried his office. His secretary told me to hold the line and she would try to 2) ………. me through. I had been 3) ………. on for about five minutes, when my card 4) ……. out and I got 5) …….. off. I went to a public phone box and tried again, but this time I just couldn’t 6) …….. through to his company at all. I had given up, when my mobile phone rang. It was him! “Mark,” I said, “at last.” “Sorry, Fred,” he said – “can I 7) ……….. you back in five minutes?” Before I could say anything he just 8) …….. up. I’m still waiting to talk to him.
25 a. Before you listen, read questions 1-8 and underline the key words in each. Then think about:
· how many people you will hear
· what kind of language you expect to hear
· what else you expect to hear
b. Now listen and, for questions 1-8, choose the best answer (A, B, or C). What key phrases helped you answer each question?
1 You’ll hear a person talking about the organization she works for. What service is she talking about?
A. Medicine for the blind
B. School for the blind
C. Books for the blind
2.You hear a conversation in an office. Why has the man gone there?
A. To repair something
B. To phone somebody
C. To check the line
3.You want to get connected to the Internet, and you call a helpline. What do you have to do?
A. Press ‘1’
B. Press ‘2’
C. Press ‘3’
4. At the airport, you hear a man leaving a message on someone’s answerphone. What does he want the person to do tomorrow?
A. Collect the car from a garage
B. Meet him at the airport
C. Fix the car’s brakes
5. You are listening to a radio interview. How does the man being interviewed feel?
6. You are listening to a news programme. What is the report about?
A. A new mobile phone company
B. A new way to send text messages
C. A new way to communicate quickly
7. You hear a couple talking in a café. How does the man feel about what the woman is showing him?
A. He is convinced he needs it
B. He doesn’t understand it
C. He think it’s too expensive.
8. You are listening to someone talking to a group of people. What is the man’s purpose?
A. To persuade people to buy a product
B. To reassure people that a product is safe
C. To stop people from buying a product
26 a. You will listen to a report about the decline in the use of public phone boxes in the UK. Before you listen, discuss the following questions.
1. Do you use public phone boxes ? In what situations?
2. Paraphrase the sentences outside the blanks in Ex.26b.
3. Look again at the incomplete sentences in Ex. 26b. With a partner, try to guess what kind of information is missing. For which item(s) is the missing information a number? For which is it a colour?
b. Now listen to the recording . For questions 1-10, complete the sentences with one to three words.
The money BT makes from telephones has decreased 1____________________ . After the invention of the telephone, it took only 2__________________ for the first phone box to appear.
The first public phones were installed in 3___________________.The phone box was initially referred to as a «public 4________________ .» When they finally appeared on the streets, they were found in 5 _______________ kiosks.
Giles Gilbert Scott wanted to create a phone box that was part of the British 6_________________, just like the post box. He intended phoneboxes to be coloured 7 __________________.
Not only did telephone kiosks not disappear during the late 80s, but their number was 8 _________________ . BT has already installed 9 _________________. Internet kiosks. Collectors can buy a traditional British phone box for 10 ________________.
c. British phone boxes are considered a symbol of British culture. What everyday objects are considered a symbol of the culture of your country?
MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
Task 27a. Look at the two photographs showing different means of communication. Compare the two photographs, saying which you think is most efficient.
Which means of communication is most efficient?
b. Which of these means do you mostly use to communicate with your family/friends?
c. Look at the two pictures below of people showing their happiness. Compare the two photographs, saying which of the two kinds of happiness is more important to you.
Which of the two kinds of happiness is more important to you?
d. What other situation make you feel this way?
Task 28. Listen to two candidates doing the speaking tasks above and compare their performance to that of your classmates.
Assess your classmates in term of:
· Grammar and vocabulary
· Discourse management
· Interactive communication
THEATRE FOR THE DEAF
There was a time when deaf people couldn’t experience the joy of a theatrical performance. This is all changing, thanks to Sign Language theatre interpreters.
Deaf people should enjoy a play as much as the hearing audience. This is the thinking behind the Americans with Disabilities Act, which requires that theatres become accessible to deaf people.
Theatre producers, on the other hand, are beginning to realize that such a feature makes their product attractive to a wider audience - with considerable financial rewards.
Theatre producers, on the other hand, are beginning to realize that such a feature makes their product attractive to a wider audience - with considerable financial rewards.
Interpreted theatre usually takes place as two or three performances in a theatre season. Preference for tickets is given to the deaf and their guests, but tickets are also sold to hearing people who are interested in seeing theatre interpreters at work.
It is a colossal project for the interpreters. Ian Cox works for SeeTheatre, a Chicago-based association of interpreters. He says, "For about a month we work with the support of a Sign Language consultant to translate and rehearse an entire play. The workload is immense. Consider that each actor in the play has about four weeks to rehearse his or her lines; we have to learn the whole play in as much time. And, when interpreting musicals, where timing, rhythm and harmonies must be practiced, the workload doubles.
"The most important technical aspect of theatre interpretation for the deaf is the location of the interpreter. Placement strategies can be categorized into three styles: ‘placed’, where interpreters are located outside the acting space and do not move; ‘zoned’, where interpreters are within the acting space, but usually move only during a change of scene or act; and, finally, ‘shadowed’, where interpreters move freely within the acting space, shadowing the movement of the actors for whom they are interpreting.
The ‘placed’ style of interpreting in the theatre is by far the most common. The interpreters are side-by-side and face the audience (although some interpreters interact with each other as appropriate). The location of the interpreter is generally in one of three places: stage right or stage left, or on the floor of the house.
The ‘zoned’ style of interpreter placement is a happy medium between the ‘placed’ and ‘shadowed’ styles. Here, interpreters are placed side-by-side within the acting space. Usually, they change position on stage from scene to scene - or from act to act - in order to be within the same ‘zone’ as the majority of the action. Zone placement makes it easier for the deaf patron to see the interpreters and actors at the same time.
The ‘shadowed’ style of interpreting is the most inclusive style of interpreting for the theatre. It involves placing the interpreters directly within the action - nearly making them ‘sign language actors’. The interpreters are ‘blocked’ into each scene, and literally shadow the actors. The advantage of this is clear: the interpreter is in such close proximity to the actor that the deaf patron need not make a decision about whom to watch - he or she can watch both at the same time. In the best of cases, the deaf patron mentally blends the interpreter with the actor, and forgets that the actor does not sign.
Theatre interpreters for the deaf are dedicated professionals who take great pride in their work. "Theatre," says Ian, "is the art of communicating beautiful ideas in interesting ways. Interpreted theatre, therefore, is an art in itself. Thankfully, instead of seeing us as ‘additions’, producers nowadays think of interpreters for the deaf as a new avenue to creativity."
Task 29. For questions 1 – 7 choose the most appropriate answer (A, B, C or D).
1) Theatre interpreters have become commonplace because
A) deaf people were avoiding the theatre.
B) theatres wanted to become more accessible.
C) a new law made their presence compulsory.
D) producers wanted a way to attract audiences.
2) Why do hearing people go to see the interpreted performances.
A) They are the most popular performances of the season.
B) They are even better than standard performances.
C) They give a better understanding of the play.
D) They offer a chance to admire the work of interpreters.
3) The workload of theatre performance is great because they have to
A) learn the lines of all the actors.
B) interpret in front of a consultant.
C) go to many of the rehearsals.
D) work in all parts of the production.
4) In which style(s) of interpreting do the interpreters change their position.
A) The zoned style.
B) The zoned and the shadowed styles.
C) The placed and the shadowed styles.
D) The shadowed style.
5) Why doesthe author refer to the zoned style as a happy medium.
A) It combines the elements from the two other styles.
B) It is mostly used in light-hearted plays.
C) It allows the interpreters to mix with the actors.
D) It makes the interpreters’ job easier.
6) What doe Ian say about theatre producers in the last paragraph.
A. They appreciate the work of interpreters.
B. They think interpreters are expensive.
C. They see interpreters as a necessary evil.
D. They don’t respect interpreters.
7) What is the author’s purpose in the text?
A. To inspire the interest in the topic.
B. To advertise interpreted theatre.
C. To show the variety in modern theatre.
D. To criticize the altitude of theatre directors.
1. to experience (to ~ pain, a joy, pleasure, panic, etc)
experienced in sth. – He is very ~ in looking after animals.
quite an ~
learn by ~
in one’s ~
2. theatrical performance
3. the thinking behind
4. to require
to ~ sth, e.g. These pets ~ a lot of care and attention. This condition ~s urgent treatment.
to ~ sb. to do sth., e.g. True marriage requires us to show trust and loyalty.
to ~ that, e.g. The situation required that he should be present.
to be ~ed of sb., e.g. What is required of a receptionist? (What are they expected to do?) The wearing of seat belts is ~ed by law.
basic ~s of life
meet/fulfill/satisfy sb’s ~s
the minimum entrance ~ for the course
5. to become accessible
6. considerable financial rewards
7. interpreted theatre
8. colossal project
9. to rehearse
to ~ for sth
13. to double
14. by far
15. to interact
to ~ with sb.
~ between sb/sth., e.g. interaction between performers and their audience
~ with sb/sth., e,g. the interaction of bacteria with the body’s natural industry
~ teaching methods
16. happy medium between
18. to involve
~ sth., e.g. Any investment ~s an element of risk.
~ doing sth., e.g. The test will ~ answering questions about a photograph.
~ sb. in doing sth./doing sth., e.g. We want to ~ as many people as possible in the celebrations.
adj. involved (~ father, sentence, plot, etc.)
to be/become/get ~ in sth.
to be ~ with, e.g. You are too emotionally ~ with the situation. She was deeply ~ with the local hospital.
n. involvement (her growing ~ with contemporary music; his ~ with the actress)
19. in close proximity to
20. in the best of cases
22. to take pride in sth.
23. in itself
24. new avenue to sth.
Task 30. Translate into Russian.
стать доступным для; колоссальный проект; значительная финансовая выгода; огромный объем работ; золотая середина; в непосредственной близи от; стратегии размещения; бок о бок; гордиться чем-либо; само по себе; сурдопереводчик; язык жестов; преданный своему делу; новые возможности.
Task 31. Paraphrase the sentences using Glossary.
1) Fifth Corner Theatre is a must with those who wants to feel the pleasures of modern performances. 2) This idea is in the basis of most human rights acts. 3) With the new boss we have to do twice as much as before. 4) It was a compromise between these opposite opinions. 5) He felt as though the whole planet was watching him. 6) If nothing goes wrong, we’ll be able to merge these two companies. 7) I’m proud of my son’s progress. 8) It won’t be an exaggeration to say that the interpreted theatre offers new opportunities to modern theatre.
Task 32. Translate the following Russian sentences into English using Glossary.
1) Он узнал на собственном опыте, что музыкальное и театральное продюсирование предполагает не только огромный объем работы, но и требует умения общаться с людьми самого разного толка. 2) Каждый ребенок имеет основное право на образование и должен иметь возможность получать и поддерживать приемлемый уровень знаний. Эта идея лежит в основе Саламанкской декларации о принципах, политике и практической деятельности в сфере образования лиц с особыми потребностями (Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education), согласно которой образование должно быть доступным всем детям. 3) Иклюзивная школа позволяет воспитать детей в духе толерантности, поскольку здоровые дети и дети с ограниченными способностями обучаются в непосредственной близости друг к другу. 4) Не думаю, что эта театральная постановка принесет значительное финансовое вознаграждение. В лучшем случае, мы сумеем окупить свои расходы. 5) Ситуация требует, чтобы вы удвоили свои усилия. Это колоссальный проект, и если вы не будете эмоционально вовлечены в него, то все наши попытки обречены на провал (doomed to failure). 6) Он потребовал, чтобы актеры регулярно готовились к этим постановкам, так как видел в них новые возможности для развития творческого потенциала театра. 7) Найти золотую середину между этими совершенно противоположными точками зрения очень сложно. 8) Интерактивные методы преподавания отвечают основным требованиям современного образования. Такой подход делает обучаемых не объектами, а субъектами обучения. 9) Переводчики в театре для глухих – это посвященные своему делу профессионалы, которые годятся своей работой. 10) На сегодняшний день самой популярной является энергия ископаемого топлива (fossil-fuel power), хотя солнечная энергия требует меньших затрат и экологически чище.
Task 33. Discussion.
a. Underline the parts of the article where Ian Cox speaks. What do you think the reporter asked him? What questions would you have asked him?
b. In what other situations are interpreters for the deaf used? Discuss in pairs.
Task 34. Use the link below and read the text Strategies for Inclusive Communication: Interacting with people with a disability:
Be ready to discuss the text in the classroom with your groupmates.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING I
Australian culture and culture shock
by Anna Jones and Xuan Quach
Sometimes work, study or a sense of adventure take us out of our familiar surroundings to go and live in a different culture. The experience can be difﬁcult, even shocking.
Almost everyone who studies, lives or works abroad has problems adjusting to a new culture. This response is commonly referred to as ‘culture shock’. Culture shock can be deﬁned as ‘the physical and emotional discomfort a person experiences when entering a culture different from their own’ (Weaver, 1993).
For people moving to Australia, Price (2001) has identiﬁed certain values which may give rise to culture shock. Firstly, he argues that Australians place a high value on independence and personal choice. This means that a teacher or course tutor will not tell students what to do, but will give them a number of options and suggest they work out which one is the best in their circumstances. It also means that they are expected to take action if something goes wrong and seek out resources and support for themselves.
Australians are also prepared to accept a range of opinions rather than believing there is one truth. This means that in an educational setting, students will be expected to form their own opinions and defend the reasons for that point of view and the evidence for it.
Price also comments that Australians are uncomfortable with differences in status and hence idealise the idea of treating everyone equally. An illustration of this is that most adult Australians call each other by their ﬁ rst names. This concern with equality means that Australians are uncomfortable taking anything too seriously and are even ready to joke about themselves.
Australians believe that life should have a balance between work and leisure time. As a consequence, some students may be critical of others who they perceive as doing nothing but study.
Australian notions of privacy mean that areas such as ﬁnancial matters, appearance and relationships are only discussed with close friends. While people may volunteer such information, they may resent someone actually asking them unless the friendship is ﬁrmly established. Even then, it is considered very impolite to ask someone what they earn. With older people, it is also rude to ask how old they are, why they are not married or why they do not have children. It is also impolite to ask people how much they have paid for something, unless there is a very good reason for asking.
Kohls (1996) describes culture shock as a process of change marked by four basic stages. During the ﬁrst stage, the new arrival is excited to be in a new place, so this is often referred to as the “honeymoon” stage. Like a tourist, they are intrigued by all the new sights and sounds, new smells and tastes of their surroundings. They may have some problems, but usually they accept them as just part of the novelty. At this point, it is the similarities that stand out, and it seems to the newcomer that people everywhere and their way of life are very much alike. This period of euphoria may last from a couple of weeks to a month, but the letdown is inevitable.
During the second stage, known as the ‘rejection’ stage, the newcomer starts to experience difﬁculties due to the differences between the new culture and the way they were accustomed to living. The initial enthusiasm turns into irritation, frustration, anger and depression, and these feelings may have the effect of people rejecting the new culture so that they notice only the things that cause them trouble, which they then complain about. In addition, they may feel homesick, bored, withdrawn and irritable during this period as well.
Fortunately, most people gradually learn to adapt to the new culture and move on to the third stage, known as ‘adjustment and reorientation’. During this stage a transition occurs to a new optimistic attitude. As the newcomer begins to understand more of the new culture, they are able to interpret some of the subtle cultural clues which passed by unnoticed earlier. Now things make more sense and the culture seems more familiar. As a result, they begin to develop problem-solving skills, and feelings of disorientation and anxiety no longer affect them.
In Kohls’s model, in the fourth stage, newcomers undergo a process of adaptation. They have settled into the new culture, and this results in a feeling of direction and self-conﬁdence. They have accepted the new food, drinks, habits and customs and may even ﬁnd themselves enjoying some of the very customs that bothered them so much previously. In addition, they realise that the new culture has good and bad things to offer and that no way is really better than another, just different.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING 2