MOODS AND FEELINGS
1. What are the ways of expressing emotions?
2. Are there emotions that have no facial expression? Name them. Do they have any other forms of expression?
3. Scan the following text to learn about the interdependence of feelings and their facial expressions.
Our mood affects our facial expressions,
but also vice versa
Often when we frown, it means that we’re sad or grumpy. But how much does the frown also exacerbate the bad mood? To study this, University of Wisconsin-Madison psychology PhD candidate David Havas tested individuals who had received Botox treatments to stop brow-wrinkling. The subjects were asked before and after Botox treatments to read statements that were angry, sad, or happy. The Botox seemed to slow down the time it took the subjects to read and understand the angry and sad statements but not the happy ones. This supports the theory that facial expressions do affect the brain's ability to process some emotions, a concept Mark looked at in 2008 in a guest essay on Good. From the University of Wisconsin-Madison:
"There is a long-standing idea in psychology called the facial feedback hypothesis," says Havas. "Essentially, it says, when you're smiling, the whole world smiles with you. It's an old song, but it's right. Actually, this study suggests the opposite: When you're not frowning, the world seems less angry and less sad."
The Havas study broke new ground by linking the expression of emotion to the ability to understand language, says Havas' adviser, UW-Madison professor emeritus of psychology Arthur Glenberg. "Normally, the brain would be sending signals to the periphery to frown, and the extent of the frown would be sent back to the brain. But here, that loop is disrupted, and the intensity of the emotion and of our ability to understand it when embodied in language is disrupted."
Practically, the study "may have profound implications for the cosmetic-surgery," says Glenberg. "Even though it's a small effect, in conversation, people respond to fast, subtle cues about each other's understanding, intention and empathy. If you are slightly slower reacting as I tell you about something made me really angry, that could signal to me that you did not pick up my message."
Such an effect could snowball, Havas says, but the outcome could also be positive: "Maybe if I am not picking up sad, angry cues in the environment, that will make me happier."
In theoretical terms, the finding supports a psychological hypothesis called "embodied cognition," says Glenberg, now a professor of psychology at Arizona State University. "The idea of embodied cognition is that all our cognitive processes, even those that have been thought of as very abstract, are actually rooted in basic bodily processes of perception, action and emotion."
READING I. HAPPY? (Pages 24-25)
Task 1. Read the text “Happy?” paying special attention to the words and expressions given in the Glossary below.
1. desire for happiness
2. focused on pleasure
3. uncover one’s secrets
4. v. achieve (one’s goal, one’s purpose)
5. keep one’s feelings to oneself
6. give advice on the pursuit of…
7. to be unacceptable
8. younger generation
9. talk openly about
10. lack of smth. (~ of cooperation, ~ of balance, ~ of wit);
for a ~ of smth.
to lack (for); to be ~ing in common sense)
11. to equal success
12. to be willing
13. outlook (change one’s ~)
14. a certain amount of smth.
15. to tend to do
16. to avoid smth. (~ disappointment)
17. to admit
20. deserve success and happiness
21. turning point in one’s life
22. to gain knowledge
23. to allow smth.
24. to face up to the fact
25. get rid of smth.
26. to be contented,
a contented individual
27. to map out a journey
to bring up a child
29. to deal with smth
30. to prevent smth
31. emotional response
33. to shut oneself off smth.
Task 2. Answer the following questions on the text:
1. What is the main source of happiness of the younger generation?
2. In what way a person can change his life for better, according to Janet Wells?
3. Do you agree that happiness is an emotional response and unhappiness is a rational response to things that happen to us?
4. In what way thinking less about the past and the future can make a person happier?
Task 3. Text analysis.
1. What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article?
2. Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs?
3. Summarize the article. Mind the rules of summary writing.
Task 4. Discussion
1. Why do peoples’ ideas of happiness differ so much?
2. What are the 5 keys to happiness? Share your opinion.
Task 5. Watch the video “Alfred Hitchcock’s definition of happiness”. Do you agree that emotions are non-productive and they should be eliminated from your work?
1. A. Hitchcock is a _____ person.
2. Negative emotions are ______ energy.
3. A sharp word may ______ A. Hitchcock for days.
4. Without feeling negative emotions you can ___ ___ and the road is clear _____.
Task 5. Translate the following sentences into English:
1) В своей новой книге известный психолог раскрывает секреты, как достичь счастья. 2) Желание быть счастливым свойственно всем, независимо от возраста, социального статуса и воспитания. Счастье все люди понимают и чувствуют по-разному. 3) В прошлом люди держали свои эмоции и чувства при себе и не говорили открыто с посторонними. Тогда это было не принято. 4) Люди с высокой самооценкой всегда могут достичь большего, так как понимают, что заслуживают успеха и счастья. 5) Некоторые боятся перемен и той неопределенности, которая приходит вместе с переменами, но для того, чтобы быть довольным собой и своей жизнью, нужно изменить свои привычки, взгляды, круг общения (отношения). 6) Осознание того, что вы можете сами предотвратить несчастья, добиться успеха станет поворотным моментом в вашей жизни. Сконцентрироваться на положительных вещах, которые происходят вокруг – вот самое главное. 7) Совершенно естественно чувствовать временами грусть, но мы не должны бесконечно критиковать себя и требовать от себя слишком многого. Это подрывает нашу веру в то, что мы приняты в обществе, что нас ценят. 8) Под счастьем люди понимают либо состояние, когда человек испытывает положительные эмоции, либо удовлетворенность жизнью. 9) Счастье, по мнению психологов, это не цель, а эмоциональный отклик на происходящее, то есть счастье – это внутренне состояние. 10) Молодые не стесняются открыто говорить о своих чувствах, о счастье или его отсутствии. Они отождествляют счастье с успехом. Быть счастливым значит быть успешным.
LANGUAGE FOCUS (pp. 26-27)
Task 6. Study the following words and expressions before doing the tasks of the Language Focus (pp. 26-27)
to be in good/bad mood,
drum one’s finger,
FOCUS ON DISCUSSION
Task 7. Scan the text about emotional eating to answer the following questions:
1. What is an emotional eating?
2. What are the symptoms of emotional hunger?
3. What are comfort foods and what feelings are they associated with?
4. Do men and women consume the same comfort foods?
5. Does the choice of comfort foods depend on negative or positive feelings ?
Emotional Eating: Feeding Your Feelings
When you're happy, your food of choice could be steak or pizza, when you're sad it could be ice cream or cookies, and when you're bored it could be potato chips. Food does more than fill our stomachs - it also satisfies feelings, and when you quench those feelings with comfort food when your stomach isn't growling, that's emotional eating.
"Emotional eating is eating for reasons other than hunger," says Jane Jakubczak, a registered dietitian at the University of Maryland. "Instead of the physical symptom of hunger initiating the eating, an emotion triggers the eating."
What are the telltale signs of emotional eating, what foods are the most likely culprits when it comes to emotional eating, and how it can be overcome? Experts help WebMD find the answers.
How to Tell the Difference
There are several differences between emotional hunger and physical hunger, according to the University of Texas Counseling and Mental Health Center web site:
1. Emotional hunger comes on suddenly; physical hunger occurs gradually.
2. When you are eating to fill a void that isn't related to an empty stomach, you crave a specific food, such as pizza or ice cream, and only that food will meet your need. When you eat because you are actually hungry, you're open to options.
3. Emotional hunger feels like it needs to be satisfied instantly with the food you crave; physical hunger can wait.
4. Even when you are full, if you're eating to satisfy an emotional need, you're more likely to keep eating. When you're eating because you're hungry, you're more likely to stop when you're full.
5. Emotional eating can leave behind feelings of guilt; eating when you are physically hungry does not.
When emotional hunger rumbles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that you're focused on a particular food, which is likely a comfort food.
"Comfort foods are foods a person eats to obtain or maintain a feeling," says Brian Wansink, PhD, director of the Food and Brand Lab at the University of Illinois. "Comfort foods are often wrongly associated with negative moods, and indeed, people often consume them when they're down or depressed, but interestingly enough, comfort foods are also consumed to maintain good moods."
Ice cream is first on the comfort food list. After ice cream, comfort foods break down by sex: For women it's chocolate and cookies; for men it's pizza, steak, and casserole, explains Wansink.
And what you reach for when eating to satisfy an emotion depends on the emotion. According to an article by Wansink, published in the July 2000 American Demographics, "The types of comfort foods a person is drawn toward varies depending on their mood. People in happy moods tended to prefer ... foods such as pizza or steak (32%). Sad people reached for ice cream and cookies 39% of the time, and 36% of bored people opened up a bag of potato chips."
Task 8. Make up a power-point presentation on one of the following topics:
1. Facial expressions of emotions.
2. Emotional intelligence.
3. How to control emotions.
READING 2. SENSE AND SENSIBILITY (Pages 30-31)
Task 9. Do the pre-reading tasks on the text.
1. What do you know about the author of the novel? Name her most famous literary works.
2. Comment on the title of the novel. What is the expressive means used and its effect?
Task 10. Find the following words and expressions in the text and reproduce the situations they were used in:
1. to be hindered by something
2. human imperfection
4. complicated mixtures
7. to dispute one’s rights
8. to be a favourite with
9. to have an opportunity
10. inconsiderate; syn. thoughtless
12. to be deeply hurt by
13. behavior (thoughtless ~, impolite ~)
14. change one’s mind
15. to avoid a disagreement
16. to possess a strength of understanding
17. to feel disgusted
19. to influence on
20. nature; enthusiastic ~,
21. hasty decisions
22. affectionate nature
23. to be determined to
24. in many respects
25. sorrows and joys
27. similarity; syn. likeness, resemblance
28. sense of honour
29. to cherish smth.
30. pain of grief
31. to overpower, to be overwhelmed by
32. to treat smb. politely
33. to convince smb. to do smth.
34. to encourage
37. never to be comforted
38. n. concern;
to have little ~;
to be ~ed about;
to be ~ed in;
to be ~ed with;
Task 11. Translate the following Russian sentences into English using as many words and expressions from Task 10 as possible:
1) В романе «Разум и чувства» известная писательница Дж. Остин описывает обычную жизнь своих современников, в которой переплетаются любовь, преданность и людские пороки. 2) Так как Джон Дэшвуд был единственным наследником мужского пола, никто не оспаривал его права на наследство. 3) Необдуманное поведение молодой женщины стало причиной обиды со стороны ее гостей. Они были глубоко уязвлены таким отношением. Такое невежливое поведение было совершенно неприемлемо. 4) Такие качества, как понимание и холодность суждений позволяют объективно оценить ситуацию и не принимать поспешные решения, о которых впоследствии придется жалеть. 5) Благоразумный человек должен уметь контролировать свои чувства, в некотором отношении с этим связан успех предприятия. 6) Отца беспокоило будущее Майкла, так как будучи щедрым, приятным в общении молодым человеком, он временами совершенно не владел собой. 7) Никто не усомнился в том, что вновь прибывшие были близкими родственниками – сходство было поразительным. 8) Бедная мать была так охвачена горем, что врач еле успокоил ее, даже когда она узнала, что ее сын не пострадал в ужасной аварии. 9) Единственный ребенок в семье привыкает к тому, что его холят и лелеют все вокруг, и нередко вырастает эгоистичным и несознательным человеком. 10) Обида матери не имела границ, но Элинор убедила ее обращаться с братом и его женой вежливо и проявлять самоконтроль.
Task 12. Watch the video “Emotional Intelligence” and discuss it with your groupmates.
SUPPLEMENTARY READING I
THE HAPPY MAN
W. Somerset Maugham
William Somerset Maugham (1874-1966), a well-known English novelist, short-story writer, playwright and essayist, was the son of a British diplomat. He was educated at King’s School at Canturbury, studied painting in Paris, went to Heidelberg University in Germany and studied to be a doctor in St. Thomas Hospital in England. Although Somerset Maugham did not denounce the contemporary social order, he was critical of the morals, the narrow-mindedness and hypocrisy of bourgeois society. It was his autobiographical novel Of Human Bondage (1951) and the novel The Moon and Sixpence (1919) based on the life of the French artist Paul Gauguin, that won him fame. Somerset Maugham was also a master of the short story.
Somerset Maugham’s style of writing is clear and precise. He does not impose his views on the reader. He puts a question and leaves it to the reader to answer it. When criticizing something he sounds rather amused than otherwise.
It is a dangerous thing to order the lives of others and I have often wondered at the self-confidence of politicians, reformers and suchlike who are prepared to force upon their fellows measures that must alter their manners, habits, and points of view. I have always hesitated to give advice, for how can one advise another how to act unless one knows that other as well as one knows oneself? Heaven knows, I know little enough of myself: I know nothing of others. We can only guess at the thoughts and emotions of our neighbours. Each one of us is a prisoner in a solitary tower and he communicates with the other prisoners, who form mankind, by conventional signs that have not quite the same meaning for them as for himself. And life, unfortunately, is something that you can lead but once; mistakes are often irreparable, and who am I that I should tell this one and that how he should lead it? Life is a difficult business and I have found it hard enough to make my own a complete and rounded thing; I have not been tempted to teach my neighbor what he should do with his. But there are men who flounder at the journey's start, the way before them is confused and hazardous, and on occasion, however unwillingly, I have been forced to point the finger of fate. Sometimes men have said to me, what shall I do with my life? And I have seen myself for a moment wrapped in the dark cloak of Destiny.
Once I know that I advised well.
I was a young man and I lived in a modest apartment in London near Victoria Station. Late one afternoon, when I was beginning to think that I had worked enough for that day, I heard a ring at the bell. I opened the door to a total stranger. He asked me my name; I told him. He asked if he might come in.
I led him into my sitting-room and begged him to sit down. He seemed a trifle embarrassed. I offered him a cigarette and he had some difficulty in lighting it without letting go of his hat. When he had satisfactorily achieved this feat I asked him if I should not put it on a chair for him. He quickly did this and while doing it dropped his umbrella.
“I hope you don't mind my coming to see you like this,” he said. “My name is Stephens and I am a doctor. You're in the medical, I believe?”
“Yes, but I don't practice.”
“No, I know. I've just read a book of yours about Spain and I wanted to ask you about it.”
“It's not a very good book, I'm afraid.”
“The fact remains that you know something about Spain and here's no one else I know who does. And I thought perhaps you wouldn't mind giving me some information.”
“I shall be very glad.”
He was silent for a moment. He reached out for his hat and holding it in one hand absent-mindedly stroked it with the other. I surmised that it gave him confidence.
“I hope you won't think it very odd for a perfect stranger to talk to you like this.” He gave an apologetic laugh. “I'm not going to tell you the story of my life.”
When people say this to me I always know that it is precisely what they are going to do. I do not mind. In fact I rather like it.
“I was brought up by two old aunts. I've never been anywhere. I've never done anything. I've been married for six years. I have no children. I'm a medical officer at the Camberwell Infirmary. I can't stick it any more.”
There was something very striking in the short, sharp sentences he used. They had a forcible ring. I had not given him more than a cursory glance, but now I looked at him with curiosity. He was a little man, thick-set and stout, of thirty perhaps, with a round red face from which shone small, dark and very bright eyes. His black hair was cropped close to a bullet-shaped head. He was dressed in a blue suit a good deal the worse for wear. It was baggy at the knees and the pockets bulged untidily.
“You know what the duties are of a medical officer in an infirmary. One day is pretty much like another. And that's all I've got to look forward to for the rest of my life. Do you think it's worth it?”
“It's a means of livelihood,” I answered.
“Yes, I know. The money's pretty good”
“I don't exactly know why you've come to me.”
“Well, I wanted to know whether you thought there would be any chance for an English doctor in Spain?”
“I don't know, I just have a fancy for it”
“It's not like Carmen, you know.”
“But there's sunshine there, and there's good wine, and there's colour, and there's air you can breathe. Let me say what I have to say straight out. I heard by accident that there was no English doctor in Seville. Do you think I could earn a living there? Is it madness to give up a good safe job for an uncertainty? “
“What does your wife think about it?”
“It's a great risk.”
“I know. But if you say take it, I will; if you say stay where you are, I'll stay.”
He was looking at me intently with those bright dark eyes of his and I knew that he meant what he said. I reflected for a moment.
“Your whole future is concerned: you must decide for yourself. But this I can tell you: if you don't want money but are content to earn just enough to keep body and soul together, then go. For you will lead a wonderful life.”
He left me, I thought about him for a day or two, and then forgot. The episode passed completely from my memory.
Many years later, fifteen at least, I happened to be in Seville and having some trifling indisposition asked the hotel porter whether there was an English doctor in the town. He said there was and gave me the address. I took a cab and as I drove up to the house a little fat man came out of it. He hesitated when he caught sight of me.
“Have you come to see me?”' he said. “I'm the English doctor.”
I explained my errand and he asked me to come in. He lived in an ordinary Spanish house, with a patio, and his consulting room which led out of it was littered with papers, books, medical appliances, and lumber. The sight of it would have startled a squeamish patient. We did our business and then I asked the doctor what his fee was. He shook his head and smiled.
“There's no fee.”
“Why on earth not?”
“Don't you remember me? Why, I'm here because of something you said to me. You changed my whole life for me. I'm Stephens.”
I had not the least notion what he was talking about. He reminded me of our interview, he repeated to me what we had said, and gradually, out of the night, a dim recollection of the incident came back to me.
“I was wondering if I'd ever see you again,' he said, 'I was wondering if ever I'd have a chance of thanking you for all you've done for me.”
“It's been a success then?”
I looked at him. He was very fat now and bald, but his eyes twinkled gaily and his fleshy, red face bore an expression of perfect good-humour. The clothes he wore, terribly shabby they were, had been made obviously by a Spanish tailor and his hat was the wide brimmed sombrero of the Spaniard. He looked to me as though he knew a good bottle of wine when he saw it. He had a dissipated, though entirely sympathetic, appearance. You might have hesitated to let him remove your appendix, but you could not have imagined a more delightful creature to drink a glass of wine with.
“Surely you were married?” I said.
‘Yes. My wife didn't like Spain, she went back to Camberwell, she was more at home there.’
“Oh, I'm sorry for that.’
His black eyes flashed a bacchanalian smile. He really had somewhat the look of a young Silenus.
“Life is full of compensations,” he murmured.
The words were hardly out of his mouth when a Spanish woman, no longer in her first youth, but still boldly and voluptuously beautiful, appeared at the door. She spoke to him in Spanish, and I could not fail to perceive that she was the mistress of the house.
As he stood at the door to let me out he said to me:
“You told me when last I saw you that if I came here I should earn just enough money to keep body and soul together, but that I should lead a wonderful life. Well, I want to tell you that you were right. Poor I have been and poor I shall always be, but by heaven I've enjoyed myself. I wouldn't exchange the life I've had with that of any king in the world.”
SUPPLEMENTARY READING II
How Emotions and Feelings Shape Learning
Body, thought, and emotion are intimately blended through complex nerve networks, and function in concert to shape our awareness. Emotions interpret, arrange, direct, and summarize information received through the five senses. They color our perception of the world and we often unconsciously react to them. They are primary and universal survival tools that permit us to experience joy, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, or threat. Since emotions are linked to survival, they receive neurological message priority. This article will provide insight into just how our feelings and emotions impact the quality of our learning.
Are emotions and feelings the same thing? The difference is that feelings are not linked to survival. Furthermore, they are context-specific responses shaped by the environment, culture, and society. Emotions can be measured through variations in blood pressure, heart rate variability, brain-imaging techniques, and electro-dermal response. Feelings are difficult to measure. Some examples of feelings are frustration, anticipation, jealousy, cynicism, worry, and optimism. In the present context, I have reason for being particular about this distinction, though most people lump these together for convenience.
Traumatic events and enduring stress can take a toll on a person's physical and psychological health. The memory and accompanying negative emotions of a stressful incident or condition, at any point in life, can lay dormant for years. When triggered by some later stressful event, they can evoke negative beliefs, desires, fantasies, compulsions, obsessions, addictions, or dissociation. This toxic brew can inhibit learning and memory, and generally fracture human wholeness. Unless the person feels emotionally secure, it is almost impossible for the thinking parts of the brain (neo-cortex and frontal lobes) to function effectively.
All living things are created with built-in defense mechanisms. The human version is a fight-or-flight reaction to perceived threats. Stressors, whether sudden and unexpected or consistent and ongoing, trigger this natural effect. Most people are unaware of the common causes and the long-term effects of stress.
Stress is cumulative, and the effects of substantial stress are dissipated only after a period of twelve to eighteen months. Low-level consistent stress keeps the body in a constant fight-or-flight stance. This means that the mind-body is not able to operate at maximum performance. In order to maintain this steady defense mode, energy is diverted away from both the immune system and the brain. Stress and constant fear, at any age, create a chemical imbalance, which can confuse the brain's normal circuits.
A person's physical and emotional well-being is closely linked to the ability to effectively act, think, and learn. Long-term exposure to threat, conflict, or humiliation will damage self-esteem and may result in a condition known as learned helplessness. This chronic defensive posture is characterized by a vortex of negative emotions, self-limiting beliefs, apathy, anxiety, fear, mistrust, immature coping behaviors, and a diminished interest and ability to process information. This state is context-specific and can be triggered over and over by contact with a certain teacher, peer, subject, building, or memory.
An unusual physiological effect occurs during emotionally-stressful conditions. As a reflex response to a threat, the eyes move peripherally so that they can monitor a greater field of vision. This makes it virtually impossible for the eyes to track across a page of writing. Enduring stress will strengthen the muscles of the outer eye, making central focus and tracking a permanent problem. A condition of traumatized children is called wall-eye where both eyes are locked in a sustained distrustful peripheral focus. This condition can be overcome through whole-brain integration exercises.
There are many theories on emotions. According to Leslie Cameron-Bandler, author of Emotional Hostage: Rescuing Your Emotional Life, it is possible to experience 421 emotions, from rage to peace of mind. Emotion is literally energy in motion. Emotions and external behavior influence one another. Behavior, whether desirable or not, is often a manifestation of our emotions. And since the mind-body is one system, the reverse is true; emotion affects physiology.
Emotions influence perception and learning. In her book, Molecules of Emotions, Dr. Candace Pert wrote:
"The brain filters our perceptions to create our 'reality.' The decisions about what we perceive, remember, and learn are regulated by emotion ― the interaction of peptides and receptors in the brain. At the same time, emotions are a response to this filtered reality, memories, and learning."
Certain positive emotions and feelings act as catalysts to learning. Curiosity, appreciation, and calmness enable receptivity and inhibit resistance. High self-esteem and self-confidence boost the learning process. Our innate personality types can indicate how we are apt to deal with the range of situations that life offers, and in which environments we are most comfortable.
As George Bernard Shaw said, Better keep yourself clean and bright; you are the window through which you must see the world.
Brian Walsh, PhD.