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вторник, 9 сентября 2014 г.

план по unit 1

UNIT 1 CROSSING BARRIERS Lead-in • Think over the following questions and discuss them with your groupmates: What is a barrier? What barriers do we face when we go to live or study in a foreign country? How can communication barriers be overcome? • Scan the following text to define different causes of communication barriers: Effective communication with people of different cultures is especially challenging. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking – ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Thus, the same words can mean different things to people from different cultures, even when they talk the "same" language. When the languages are different, and translation has to be used to communicate, the potential for misunderstandings increases. Stella Ting-Toomey describes three ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or world views that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second are "behavior constraints." Each culture has its own rules about proper behavior which affect verbal and nonverbal communication. Whether one looks the other person in the eye – or not; whether one says what one means overtly or talks around the issue; how close the people stand to each other when they are talking – all of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture. Ting-Toomey's third factor is "emotional constraints." Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently. Some cultures get very emotional when they are debating an issue. They yell, they cry, they exhibit their anger, fear, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to keep their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the "rational" or factual aspects of the situation. All of these differences tend to lead to communication problems. If the people involved are not aware of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it takes more than awareness to overcome these problems and communicate effectively across cultures. READING I. A MULTILINGUAL INTERNET (Pages 8-9) Task 1. Read the text A Multilingual Internet? paying special attention to the words and expressions given in the Glossary below. GLOSSARY 1. bring enormous benefits for 2. worldwide communication 3. a threat to sth. (e.g. ~ to cultural diversity) 4. to come as quite as a surprise 5. mother tongue 6. to ´access sth n. ´access to sth adj. ac´cessible 7. to conduct e-business 8. to become apparent to sb. adv. apparently 9. to point out 10. to reach world markets 11. a customer (regular ~, cool ~) adj. customary v. customize 12. to create a (multilingual) site 13. problems with no easy solutions 14. for one thing 15. to face a huge challenge 16. virtually 17. to deal with 18. all sorts of legal issues 19. to take into consideration 20. vast changes 21. overnight (e.g. to happen ~, to become famous ~) 22. in the first place 23. to do business (to do e-business) 24. at an ever-increasing pace v. to in´crease n. ´increase (in sth.) 25. to be aware of n. awareness (cultural ~, environmental ~) n. awareness raising 26. target market (~ audience) 27. to be at an advantage to take ¬~ of to have an ~ over sb. to have the ~ of adj. advan´tageous (¬~ business, ¬~ position) 28. to limit sb. from doing sth. 29. to expand n. expansion (e.g. expansion of the English language) 30. growth area 31. slightly adj. slight v. to slight sb (to feel ~ed) Task 2. Answer the following questions on the text: ᵒ What threat does spread of English pose? ᵒ In what way is the position of English changing now with more and more people accessing the Internet? ᵒ Why isn’t creating a multilingual site an easy task? ᵒ In what way are local companies at an advantage nowadays? Task 3. Text analysis. a) Analyze the title of the text. What is the role of paralinguistic means used in the title? What function does the topical sentence serve? b) What is the problem raised by the authors of the article? Does the word choice relate to the theme of the article? c) Does the writer begin the introduction stating the problem or providing general information on the topic? What type of connection is used to join the paragraphs? d) Summarize the article. Mind the rules of summary writing. How to write a summary 1. Read the article to be summarized and make sure you understand it. 2. Outline the article. Note the major points. 3. Write a first draft of the summary without looking at the article. 4. Always use paraphrase when writing a summary. If you do copy a phrase from the original, be sure it is a very important phrase that is necessary and cannot be paraphrased. In this case put "quotation marks" around the phrase. 5. Target your first draft for approximately 1/4 the length of the original. Task 4. Watch the video English as a global language and fill the gaps in the sentences below. Then, discuss in pairs the problems raised by Jay Walker. Do you agree with him? Why? (Why not?) 1. How many people are trying to learn English ______? Two billion of them. 2. Learning English can give people the ______ for a better life, a job, to be able to pay for school, or ______ better food on the table. 3. With English you can become part of a ______ conversation, a global conversation about global problems. 4. English is becoming the language of ______ ______. 5. English represents hope for a better future, where the world has a ______ language to solve its ______ problems Task 5. Translate the following sentences into English: 1) Многие ученые отмечают, что, несмотря на значительные преимущества, которые несет в себе глобализация для развития мировой коммуникации, она может стать угрозой для культурного многообразия, поскольку многие местные языки (vernacular languages) становятся жертвой (fall victim to sth) экспансии английского языка. 2) Руководство большинства компаний осознает те значительные изменения, которые претерпел мировой рынок за последние два десятилетия. Поэтому для них вполне очевидна необходимость ведения бизнеса в виртуальном пространстве для того, чтобы занять свою нишу в мировом рынке. 3) Для меня стало совершенной неожиданностью, что люди на улице узнают меня. Никогда не думала, что можно стать знаменитостью за ночь. 4) Фильм поднимает проблему формирования экологического сознания. Создатели фильма обращают особое внимание на то, что состояние планеты ухудшается все возрастающими темпами. 5) Он стал экспертом в решении непростых задач. Практически все клиенты, с которыми ему приходилось иметь дело, оказывались в выигрышном положении. 6) Прежде чем определить целевой рынок, мы должны были решить, какой регион мог стать для нас направлением развития. Здесь нельзя было торопиться, так как необходимо было принять во внимание различные юридические аспекты. 7) Прежде всего, создав многоязыковой сайт, мы сможем расширить свою целевую аудиторию. В результате, мы получим доступ ко многим, пока закрытым для нас рынкам сбыта (sales markets). 8) Он столкнулся с серьезной проблемой: плохое знание родного языка мешало ему сблизиться с этими людьми. 9) Он чувствовал себя ущемленным, так как никто не ответил на его приветствие. 10) Количество людей, подключающихся к интернету в сельских местностях, незначительно возросло за последний месяц. LANGUAGE FOCUS (pp.10 – 11) Task 6. Study the following words and expressions before doing the tasks of the Language Focus (pp. 10 – 11) to yell to hear from sb. to yawn bump into sb. to weep to wave at sb. to yawn connect with sb. to clap to glare at sb. first language to smile at sb. strong regional accent to chat to/with sb. to make a small talk to shout to/at sb. a figure of speech to whisper to sb. to tell the difference between to wink at sb. to speak one’s mind to make an appointment with sb. to say a word to switch off to talk business to put sb. through to be out of touch with to hang on to get hold of to run out to lose touch with to get cut off to lose contact with to get through to to hold the line call sb. back to come into contact with hang up FOCUS ON DISCUSSION NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Task 7. Scan the text about non-verbal communication to answer the following questions: 1) What is non-verbal communication? 2) What does the term ‘non-verbal communication’ encompass? 3) What non-verbal elements can be discovered in speech and written texts? 4) What are three principal areas of non-verbal communication in the process of interaction between individuals 5) In what way is non-verbal behavior determined by culture? Non-Verbal Communication Non-verbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as body language (kinesics), but non-verbal communication encompasses much more, such as use of voice (paralanguage), touch (haptics), distance (proxemics), and physical environments/appearance. Typically overlooked in non-verbal communication are proxemics, or the informal space around the body and chronemics: the use of time. Not only considered eye contact, oculesics comprises the actions of looking while talking and listening, frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate. Even speech contains non-verbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, rate, pitch, volume, and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation, and stress. Likewise, written texts have non-verbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the physical layout of a page. However, much of the study of non-verbal communication has focused on interaction between individuals, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of communicators during interaction. Non-verbal communication involves the processes of encoding and decoding. Encoding is the act of generating the information such as facial expressions, gestures, and postures. Decoding is the interpretation of information from received sensations from previous experiences. Only a small percentage of the brain processes verbal communication. As infants, non-verbal communication is learned from social-emotional communication, making the face rather than words the major organ of communication. As children become verbal communicators, they begin to look at facial expressions, vocal tones, and other non-verbal elements more subconsciously. Culture plays an important role in non-verbal communication. The most important thing to keep in mind about non-verbal behaviors is that they do not translate across cultures easily and can lead to serious misunderstanding. Human behaviors are driven by values, beliefs, and attitudes, and it is helpful to consider how these invisible aspects of culture drive the behaviors we can see. Task 8. Can you provide any examples of cultural differences in non-verbal communication modes of your country? Task 9. Prepare a presentation on cultural aspect of non-verbal communication. Make use of the text “A World of Body Language” (Workbook, pp, 8 – 9) as well as the Internet resources. READING 2. THEATRE FOR THE DEAF (Pages 14 – 15) Task 10. Find the following words and expressions in the text and reproduce the situations they were used in: GLOSSARY 1. to experience (to ~ pain, a joy, pleasure, panic, etc) experienced in sth. – He is very ~ in looking after animals. n. experience quite an ~ learn by ~ in one’s ~ direct/first-hand ~ 2. theatrical performance 3. the thinking behind 4. to require to ~ sth, e.g. These pets ~ a lot of care and attention. This condition ~s urgent treatment. to ~ sb. to do sth., e.g. True marriage requires us to show trust and loyalty. to ~ that, e.g. The situation required that he should be present. to be ~ed of sb., e.g. What is required of a receptionist? (What are they expected to do?) The wearing of seat belts is ~ed by law. Syn. demand n. requirement basic ~s of life meet/fulfill/satisfy sb’s ~s the minimum entrance ~ for the course 5. to become accessible 6. considerable financial rewards 7. interpreted theatre 8. colossal project 9. to rehearse to ~ for sth n. rehearsal 10. entire 11. workload 12. immense 13. to double 14. by far 15. to interact to ~ with sb. n. interaction ~ between sb/sth., e.g. interaction between performers and their audience ~ with sb/sth., e,g. the interaction of bacteria with the body’s natural industry adj. interactive ~ teaching methods 16. happy medium between 17. inclusive 18. to involve ~ sth., e.g. Any investment ~s an element of risk. ~ doing sth., e.g. The test will ~ answering questions about a photograph. ~ sb. in doing sth./doing sth., e.g. We want to ~ as many people as possible in the celebrations. adj. involved (~ father, sentence, plot, etc.) to be/become/get ~ in sth. to be ~ with, e.g. You are too emotionally ~ with the situation. She was deeply ~ with the local hospital. n. involvement (her growing ~ with contemporary music; his ~ with the actress) 19. in close proximity to 20. in the best of cases 21. dedicated 22. to take pride in sth. 23. in itself 24. new avenue to sth. 25. creativity Task 11. Translate the following Russian sentences into English using as many words and expressions from Task 10 as possible: 1) Он узнал на собственном опыте, что музыкальное и театральное продюсирование предполагает не только огромный объем работы, но и требует умения общаться с людьми самого разного толка. 2) Каждый ребенок имеет основное право на образование и должен иметь возможность получать и поддерживать приемлемый уровень знаний. Эта идея лежит в основе Саламанкской декларации о принципах, политике и практической деятельности в сфере образования лиц с особыми потребностями (Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education), согласно которой образование должно быть доступным всем детям. 3) Иклюзивная школа позволяет воспитать детей в духе толерантности, поскольку здоровые дети и дети с ограниченными способностями обучаются в непосредственной близости друг к другу. 4) Не думаю, что эта театральная постановка принесет значительное финансовое вознаграждение. В лучшем случае, мы сумеем окупить свои расходы. 5) Ситуация требует, чтобы вы удвоили свои усилия. Это колоссальный проект, и если вы не будете эмоционально вовлечены в него, то все наши попытки обречены на провал (doomed to failure). 6) Он потребовал, чтобы актеры регулярно готовились к этим постановкам, так как видел в них новые возможности для развития творческого потенциала театра. 7) Найти золотую середину между этими совершенно противоположными точками зрения очень сложно. 8) Интерактивные методы преподавания отвечают основным требованиям современного образования. Такой подход делает обучаемых не объектами, а субъектами обучения. 9) Переводчики в театре для глухих – это посвященные своему делу профессионалы, которые годятся своей работой. 10) На сегодняшний день самой популярной является энергия ископаемого топлива (fossil-fuel power), хотя солнечная энергия требует меньших затрат и экологически чище. Task 12. Use the link below and read the text Strategies for Inclusive Communication: Interacting with people with a disability: https://www.unimelb.edu.au/diversity/downloads/communication.pdf Be ready to discuss the text in the classroom with your groupmates. SUPPLEMENTARY READING I Australian culture and culture shock by Anna Jones and Xuan Quach Sometimes work, study or a sense of adventure take us out of our familiar surroundings to go and live in a different culture. The experience can be difficult, even shocking. Almost everyone who studies, lives or works abroad has problems adjusting to a new culture. This response is commonly referred to as ‘culture shock’. Culture shock can be defined as ‘the physical and emotional discomfort a person experiences when entering a culture different from their own’ (Weaver, 1993). For people moving to Australia, Price (2001) has identified certain values which may give rise to culture shock. Firstly, he argues that Australians place a high value on independence and personal choice. This means that a teacher or course tutor will not tell students what to do, but will give them a number of options and suggest they work out which one is the best in their circumstances. It also means that they are expected to take action if something goes wrong and seek out resources and support for themselves. Australians are also prepared to accept a range of opinions rather than believing there is one truth. This means that in an educational setting, students will be expected to form their own opinions and defend the reasons for that point of view and the evidence for it. Price also comments that Australians are uncomfortable with differences in status and hence idealise the idea of treating everyone equally. An illustration of this is that most adult Australians call each other by their fi rst names. This concern with equality means that Australians are uncomfortable taking anything too seriously and are even ready to joke about themselves. Australians believe that life should have a balance between work and leisure time. As a consequence, some students may be critical of others who they perceive as doing nothing but study. Australian notions of privacy mean that areas such as financial matters, appearance and relationships are only discussed with close friends. While people may volunteer such information, they may resent someone actually asking them unless the friendship is firmly established. Even then, it is considered very impolite to ask someone what they earn. With older people, it is also rude to ask how old they are, why they are not married or why they do not have children. It is also impolite to ask people how much they have paid for something, unless there is a very good reason for asking. Kohls (1996) describes culture shock as a process of change marked by four basic stages. During the first stage, the new arrival is excited to be in a new place, so this is often referred to as the “honeymoon” stage. Like a tourist, they are intrigued by all the new sights and sounds, new smells and tastes of their surroundings. They may have some problems, but usually they accept them as just part of the novelty. At this point, it is the similarities that stand out, and it seems to the newcomer that people everywhere and their way of life are very much alike. This period of euphoria may last from a couple of weeks to a month, but the letdown is inevitable. During the second stage, known as the ‘rejection’ stage, the newcomer starts to experience difficulties due to the differences between the new culture and the way they were accustomed to living. The initial enthusiasm turns into irritation, frustration, anger and depression, and these feelings may have the effect of people rejecting the new culture so that they notice only the things that cause them trouble, which they then complain about. In addition, they may feel homesick, bored, withdrawn and irritable during this period as well. Fortunately, most people gradually learn to adapt to the new culture and move on to the third stage, known as ‘adjustment and reorientation’. During this stage a transition occurs to a new optimistic attitude. As the newcomer begins to understand more of the new culture, they are able to interpret some of the subtle cultural clues which passed by unnoticed earlier. Now things make more sense and the culture seems more familiar. As a result, they begin to develop problem-solving skills, and feelings of disorientation and anxiety no longer affect them. In Kohls’s model, in the fourth stage, newcomers undergo a process of adaptation. They have settled into the new culture, and this results in a feeling of direction and self-confidence. They have accepted the new food, drinks, habits and customs and may even find themselves enjoying some of the very customs that bothered them so much previously. In addition, they realise that the new culture has good and bad things to offer and that no way is really better than another, just different. SUPPLEMENTARY READING 2

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